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Title: "Green" computer colour matching system for pollution prevention in textile wet processing
Authors: Kwok, Wing-yin Keith
Degree: Ph.D.
Issue Date: 2002
Abstract: In recent years, it is evident that there are much more public awareness and concern as well as tendency towards much tighter legislation for the environment. This has brought a lot of environmental pressure on the textile dyeing industry that always is considered as one of the major water polluters. This works described in this thesis aim to utilise the Computer Colour Matching (CCM) system which has been widely used in textile dyeing industry to assist the colourists to select "green" formula and let them know well ahead in time the impact of these colourants on the environment in the subsequent dyeing process so as to achieve pollution prevention through source reduction. The ecological and toxicological properties of various dye classes as well as the impact of different dye classes on the environment has been studied preliminarily with reference to a total number of 380 Safety Data Sheets (SDS) obtained from 2 reputed environmental aware dyestuff suppliers. The purposes of this preliminary study are to study the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of different dye classes and to choose a specific dye class for further analysis. The results showed that each dye class produces waste of vastly differing quantities and characteristics. Also, reactive dye class has been identified for detailed study. Six important pollution parameters of 15 dyes from 2 different series of dyes (Cibacron F and Cibacron LS) have been examined so as to establish the waste indicator database. For each pollution parameter, 280 and 175 combinations of reactive dyeings from the 2 series of dyes on cotton fabrics have been carried out in order to collect dyeing effluent samples for analysis. Therefore, over 2000 reactive dyeings have been carried out and these dyeing effluent samples have been used as the standards to compare with the predicted data. The best fit mathematical model used in regression analysis has been predicted for describing the relationship between each pollution parameter of the dye and the corresponding pollution parameter of the dyeing effluents. The prediction performance of each proposed mathematical model has been evaluated in terms of percentage error, standard deviation and the variability of the prediction so as to obtain the best fit one for predicting the pollution parameter of the dyeing effluents. The mathematical model that obtained by calculating the percentage difference between the theoretical data and measured data at different concentrations of dyeing has been verified to be the best fit one for predicting the pollution parameter of dyeing effluents. A new breed of Computer Colour Matching (CCM) system called "Green" Computer Colour Matching (GCCM) system has been developed by incorporating the waste indicator database and the established mathematical models into a traditional CCM system. The detailed mathematical steps required for colourant formulation and the programming logic used for the development of the "Green" Computer Colour Matching (GCCM) System has been discussed. The algorithm of colourant formulation and recipe correction has been described thoroughly and Matrix Algebra has been used to solve the colourant formulation equations. A General Pollution Index (GPI) representing the overall pollution information of the dyeing recipes has been created by the summation of the normalised pollution indicators. Microsoft Visual Basic (VB) has been chosen to create the GCCM program. The performance of the GCCM system has been verified in terms of colour matching ability and pollution prediction ability. The results showed that although the colour matching ability of the GCCM system was not as good as the commercially used CCM system in terms of average colour difference of the matching and the average number of corrections need to be done to obtain a satisfactory match, the colour matching ability of the GCCM was acceptable. Furthermore, the pollution prediction ability of the GCCM system for the Cibacron F-series and LS series has been proved to be satisfactory. The mathematical models established for Cibacron series dyes have been used for the pollution prediction of the Procion series dyes and the result was found to be satisfactory. The GCCM system has been proved to provide alternative "green" recipes with various pollution indicators as well as a general pollution index while satisfying the basic colour quality requirements.
Subjects: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Color in the textile industries -- Environmental aspects
Textile industry -- Environmental aspects
Dyes and dyeing -- Environmental aspects
Color -- Analysis -- Data processing
Pages: xxii, 376 leaves : ill. ; 30 cm
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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