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Title: Spatial organization and walking service efficiency surrounding Shenzhen transit-oriented development (TOD) stations
Authors: Tong, Xin
Degree: Ph.D.
Issue Date: 2019
Abstract: In the past decades, China's rapid urbanization has triggered the issue of population concentrates and urban sprawl. The problems brought by the motorized vehicles and increasing demand of bicycle and pedestrian travel have drawn extensive attentions in urbans studies. Walking, as one of the most traditional travel behaviour and lifestyle, is challenged by the modern urban development. Especially in the railway station surrounding areas, pedestrians walking is under threat by heavy transit passengers, dense urban space and the massive amount of passing-by vehicles. How to integrate transit-oriented development (TOD) areas and establish an efficient walking system is a major issue and grand challenge. Therefore, under the background of urban sprawl and the revival movement of walkable city, the research study presented in this dissertation aims to build and apply a quantitative method to discuss the integration correlation between pedestrian flow and urban space. The central goal of this study is to develop an approach to measure walking service efficiency by considering pedestrian flow and spatial coordination, and to analyse their mutual relationship. This can then be put forward to support the planning strategy to encourage the effective walking behaviours around TOD stations. Thus, the objectives of this study are: 1) to identify the issues and evaluation content of walking space; 2) to evaluate the walking service efficiency of TOD areas; 3); to build a quantitative method to analyse the mutual relationship of spatial organization and walking service efficiency; and 4) to better understand the influence mechanism of spatial organization and walking service efficiency in TOD areas. This study applied the pedestrian simulation method based on the Social Force (SF) model to investigate the pedestrian flow movement and its distribution, as well as to conceive planning scenarios and build the statistical regression model to explain the relationship between urban space and walking service efficiency. The big data of ridership records of Shenzhen metro stations, Point-of-interest (POI) surrounding Shenzhen railway stations and the OpenStreeMap (OSM) of street networks were used to investigate walking and spatial characteristics. An agent-based software, Anylogic, was used to simulate the pedestrian movement and predict the walking distribution of different scenarios. Overall, 253 streets surrounding nine TOD stations were selected as study areas to simulate the walking behaviour and evaluate the relationship.
To evaluate the spatial organization of TOD areas, the spatial factors including land-use structure, streets pattern and traffic management were assessed with ArcGIS based on POI, OSM data of 2016 and a field survey conducted in 2017. The spatial organization indicators (land use function, density and diversity, street depth, connect, control, integration, betweenness, road hierarchy, pavement hierarchy, walking distance, spatial organization mode) have been calculated as independent variables. To estimate the walking service efficiency, this study considered the service level and coordination with space as the primary dimension. Four dependent variables (walking speed, pedestrian volume, congestion imbalance and spatial sensitivity) were extracted. To investigate the relationship between pedestrian traffic and urban space, the quantitative measurements of simulation and Partial Least Square (PLS) regression were established. A simulation model was proposed and verified. With scenario simulation and statistical analysis, it compared the change characteristics of walking efficiency under different spatial organization scene. The change rules and key spatial influencing factors were identified from the PLS regression models. This study expanded the walkability concept by efficiency and explored the quantitative way of deciphering walking service efficiency with respect to spatial organization by using simulation and big data methods. The combination of research methods for transportation and computer simulation has solved the problems from huge pedestrian volume and hard-obtaining data of walking movement experienced in previous studies to some extent. It contributed an integrative framework to better understand the mechanism of walking behaviour in TOD areas by analysing the relationship between pedestrian flow and spatial organization. The findings of this study can provide practical reference for planners, designer and policy makers regarding how to improve the walking efficiency of TOD area and promote the urban vibrancy.
Subjects: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Transit-oriented development -- China -- Shenzhen (Guangdong Sheng : East)
Urban transportation -- Planning -- China -- Shenzhen (Guangdong Sheng : East)
Pages: xv, 216 pages : color illustrations
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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