Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Title: Effectiveness of a binocular video game vs placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children, teenagers, and adults with amblyopia : a randomized clinical trial
Authors: Gao, TY
Guo, CX
Babu, RJ
Black, JM
Bobier, WR
Chakraborty, A
Dai, S
Hess, RF
Jenkins, M
Jiang, Y
Kearns, LS
Kowal, L
Lam, CSY 
Pang, PCK 
Parag, V
Pieri, R
Raveendren, RN
South, J
Staffieri, SE
Wadham, A
Walker, N
Thompson, B
BRAVO Study Team (Group author)
Issue Date: Feb-2018
Source: JAMA ophthalmology, Feb. 2018, v. 136, no. 2, p. 172-181
Abstract: Importance Binocular amblyopia treatment using contrast-rebalanced stimuli showed promise in laboratory studies and requires clinical trial investigation in a home-based setting.
Objective To compare the effectiveness of a binocular video game with a placebo video game for improving visual functions in older children and adults.
Design, Setting, and Participants The Binocular Treatment of Amblyopia Using Videogames clinical trial was a multicenter, double-masked, randomized clinical trial. Between March 2014 and June 2016, 115 participants 7 years and older with unilateral amblyopia (amblyopic eye visual acuity, 0.30-1.00 logMAR; Snellen equivalent, 20/40-20/200) due to anisometropia, strabismus, or both were recruited. Eligible participants were allocated with equal chance to receive either the active or the placebo video game, with minimization stratified by age group (child, age 7 to 12 years; teenager, age 13 to 17 years; and adult, 18 years and older).
Interventions Falling-blocks video games played at home on an iPod Touch for 1 hour per day for 6 weeks. The active video game had game elements split between eyes with a dichoptic contrast offset (mean [SD] initial fellow eye contrast, 0.23 [0.14]). The placebo video game presented identical images to both eyes.
Main Outcomes and Measures Change in amblyopic eye visual acuity at 6 weeks. Secondary outcomes included compliance, stereoacuity, and interocular suppression. Participants and clinicians who measured outcomes were masked to treatment allocation.
Results Of the 115 included participants, 65 (56.5%) were male and 83 (72.2%) were white, and the mean (SD) age at randomization was 21.5 (13.6) years. There were 89 participants (77.4%) who had prior occlusion. The mean (SD) amblyopic eye visual acuity improved 0.06 (0.12) logMAR from baseline in the active group (n = 56) and 0.07 (0.10) logMAR in the placebo group (n = 59). The mean treatment difference between groups, adjusted for baseline visual acuity and age group, was −0.02 logMAR (95% CI, −0.06 to 0.02; P = .25). Compliance with more than 25% of prescribed game play was achieved by 36 participants (64%) in the active group and by 49 (83%) in the placebo group. At 6 weeks, 36 participants (64%) in the active group achieved fellow eye contrast greater than 0.9 in the binocular video game. No group differences were observed for any secondary outcomes. Adverse effects included 3 reports of transient asthenopia.
Conclusions and Relevance The specific home-based binocular falling-blocks video game used in this clinical trial did not improve visual outcomes more than the placebo video game despite increases in fellow eye contrast during game play. More engaging video games with considerations for compliance may improve effectiveness.
Publisher: American Medical Association
Journal: JAMA ophthalmology 
ISSN: 2168-6165
EISSN: 2168-6173
DOI: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.6090
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

Page views

Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Jan 29, 2023


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Jan 26, 2023


Last Week
Last month
Citations as of Jan 26, 2023

Google ScholarTM



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.