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Title: Millifluidic synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and their application in bioimaging
Authors: Hong, LY
Cheung, TL 
Rao, NX 
Ouyang, QL
Wang, Y
Zeng, SW
Yang, CB
Cuong, D
Chong, PHJ
Liu, LW
Law, WC 
Yong, KT
Issue Date: 2017
Source: RSC advances, 2017, v. 7, no. 58, p. 36819-36832
Abstract: In this paper, a miniature fluidic synthesis platform utilizing millimeter dimension channels for the synthesis of cadmium sulfide (CdS) quantum dots and nanocrystals is demonstrated. Traditional nanoparticle synthesis techniques involve macroscopic flasks where reaction conditions may vary at different positions inside the vessel. Therefore challenges in terms of batch reproducibility for large scale production are of great concern. Here, we show that it is possible to replicate reaction conditions so as to produce nanoparticles with similar optical characteristics across different batches using the same reaction parameters. Particle size control was established by varying the flow rate of the precursors, yielding gradually increasing nanocrystal sizes from 2.4 nm to 3.7 nm with increasing residence time. The as-synthesized CdS nanoparticles exhibited tunable photoluminescence by adjusting the molar ratio of the cadmium and sulfur precursors, giving rise to greenish-blue and orange-red emissions under ultraviolet light illumination. The particles were then studied and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorbance, photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) techniques. Lastly, bioimaging of RAW264.7 mice macrophage cells using ligand exchanged CdS nanoparticles is presented.
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
Journal: RSC advances 
ISSN: 2046-2069
EISSN: 2046-2069
DOI: 10.1039/c7ra05401g
Rights: This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017
Open Access Article. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported Licence (
The following publication Hong, L., Cheung, T. L., Rao, N., Ouyang, Q., Wang, Y., Zeng, S., ... & Law, W. C. (2017). Millifluidic synthesis of cadmium sulfide nanoparticles and their application in bioimaging. RSC advances, 7(58), 36819-36832 is available at
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