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Title: Comparing the space-time patterns of high-risk areas in different waves of COVID-19 in Hong Kong
Authors: Kan, Z
Kwan, MP
Huang, J
Wong, MS 
Liu, D
Issue Date: 2021
Source: Transactions in GIS, 2021, Early View,
Abstract: This study compares the space-time patterns and characteristics of high-risk areas of COVID-19 transmission in Hong Kong between January 23 and April 14 (the first and second waves) and between July 6 and Aug. 29 (the third wave). Using space-time scan statistics and the contact tracing data of individual confirmed cases, we detect the clusters of residences of, and places visited by, both imported and local cases. We also identify the built-environment and demographic characteristics of the high-risk areas during different waves of COVID-19. We find considerable differences in the space-time patterns and characteristics of high-risk residential areas between waves. However, venues and buildings visited by the confirmed cases in different waves have similar characteristics. The results can inform policymakers to target mitigation measures in high-risk areas and at vulnerable groups, and provide guidance to the public to avoid visiting and conducting activities at high-risk places.
Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell
Journal: Transactions in GIS 
ISSN: 1361-1682
EISSN: 1467-9671
DOI: 10.1111/tgis.12800
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Transactions in GIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License (, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
The following publication Kan, Z., Kwan, M. P., Huang, J., Wong, M. S., & Liu, D. (2021). Comparing the space‐time patterns of high‐risk areas in different waves of COVID‐19 in Hong Kong. Transactions in GIS is available at
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