Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/91274
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Title: Distribution, behaviour, bioavailability and remediation of poly- and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in solid biowastes and biowaste-treated soil
Authors: Bolan, N
Sarkar, B
Vithanage, M
Singh, G
Tsang, DCW 
Mukhopadhyay, R
Ramadass, K
Vinu, A
Sun, Y 
Ramanayaka, S
Hoang, SA
Yan, Y
Li, Y
Rinklebe, J
Li, H
Kirkham, MB
Issue Date: Oct-2021
Source: Environment international, Oct. 2021, v. 155, 106600
Abstract: Aqueous film-forming foam, used in firefighting, and biowastes, including biosolids, animal and poultry manures, and composts, provide a major source of poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) input to soil. Large amounts of biowastes are added to soil as a source of nutrients and carbon. They also are added as soil amendments to improve soil health and crop productivity. Plant uptake of PFAS through soil application of biowastes is a pathway for animal and human exposure to PFAS. The complexity of PFAS mixtures, and their chemical and thermal stability, make remediation of PFAS in both solid and aqueous matrices challenging. Remediation of PFAS in biowastes, as well as soils treated with these biowastes, can be achieved through preventing and decreasing the concentration of PFAS in biowaste sources (i.e., prevention through source control), mobilization of PFAS in contaminated soil and subsequent removal through leaching (i.e., soil washing) and plant uptake (i.e., phytoremediation), sorption of PFAS, thereby decreasing their mobility and bioavailability (i.e., immobilization), and complete removal through thermal and chemical oxidation (i.e., destruction). In this review, the distribution, bioavailability, and remediation of PFAS in soil receiving solid biowastes, which include biosolids, composts, and manure, are presented.
Keywords: Aqueous firefighting foam
Biosolids
Biowastes
Compost
Manure
Soil remediation
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Journal: Environment international 
ISSN: 0160-4120
DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106600
Rights: © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
The following publication Bolan, N., Sarkar, B., Vithanage, M., Singh, G., Tsang, D. C., Mukhopadhyay, R., ... & Kirkham, M. B. (2021). Distribution, behaviour, bioavailability and remediation of poly-and per-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in solid biowastes and biowaste-treated soil. Environment International, 155, 106600 is available at https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2021.106600
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