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Title: Measures of balance and falls risk prediction in people with Parkinson's disease : a systematic review of psychometric properties
Authors: Winser, SJ 
Kannan, P 
Bello, UM 
Whitney, SL
Issue Date: 1-Dec-2019
Source: Clinical rehabilitation, 1 Dec. 2019, v. 33, no. 12, p. 1949-1962
Abstract: Objective: To investigate the psychometric properties of measures of balance and falls risk prediction in people with Parkinson's disease (PD).
Data sources: PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, Ovid Medline, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched from inception to August 2019.
Review method: Studies testing psychometric properties of measures of balance and falls risk prediction in PD were included. The four-point COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) assessed quality.
Results: Eighty studies testing 68 outcome measures were reviewed; 43 measures assessed balance, 9 assessed falls risk prediction, and 16 assessed both. The measures with robust psychometric estimation with acceptable properties were the (1) Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BEST), (2) Berg Balance Scale, (3) Timed Up and Go test, (4) Falls Efficacy Scale International, and (5) Activities-Specific Balance Confidence scale. These measures assess balance and falls risk prediction at the body, structure and function level, falls risk and balance, and falls risk at the activity level. The motor examination of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-ME) with robust psychometric analysis is a condition-specific measure with acceptable properties. Except the UPDRS-ME and Mini-BESTest, the responsiveness of the other four measures has yet to be established.
Conclusion: Six of the 68 outcome measures have strong psychometric properties for the assessment of balance and falls risk prediction in PD. Measures assessing balance and falls risk prediction at the participatory level are limited in number with a lack of psychometric validation.
Keywords: Parkinson's disease
Balance and falls
Reliability
Validity
Falls risk
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Journal: Clinical rehabilitation 
ISSN: 0269-2155
EISSN: 1477-0873
DOI: 10.1177/0269215519877498
Rights: © The Author(s) 2019
Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/)
Article reuse guidelines: sagepub.com/journals-permissions
The following publication Winser, S. J., Kannan, P., Bello, U. M., & Whitney, S. L. (2019). Measures of balance and falls risk prediction in people with Parkinson's disease : a systematic review of psychometric properties. Clinical Rehabilitation, 1-14 is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0269215519877498
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