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Title: Association between dynamic resting-state functional connectivity and ketamine plasma levels in visual processing networks
Authors: Spies, M
Klobl, M
Hoflich, A
Hummer, A
Vanicek, T
Michenthaler, P
Kranz, GS 
Hahn, A
Winkler, D
Windischberger, C
Kasper, S
Lanzenberger, R
Issue Date: 2019
Source: Scientific reports, 2019, v. 9, 11484, p. 1-13
Abstract: Numerous studies demonstrate ketamine's influence on resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). Seed-based and static rsFC estimation methods may oversimplify FC. These limitations can be addressed with whole-brain, dynamic rsFC estimation methods. We assessed data from 27 healthy subjects who underwent two 3T resting-state fMRI scans, once under subanesthetic, intravenous esketamine and once under placebo, in a randomized, cross-over manner. We aimed to isolate only highly robust effects of esketamine on dynamic rsFC by using eight complementary methodologies derived from two dynamic rsFC estimation methods, two functionally defined atlases and two statistical measures. All combinations revealed a negative influence of esketamine on dynamic rsFC within the left visual network and inter-hemispherically between visual networks (p < 0.05, corrected), hereby suggesting that esketamine's influence on dynamic rsFC is highly stable in visual processing networks. Our findings may be reflective of ketamine's role as a model for psychosis, a disorder associated with alterations to visual processing and impaired inter-hemispheric connectivity. Ketamine is a highly effective antidepressant and studies have shown changes to sensory processing in depression. Dynamic rsFC in sensory processing networks might be a promising target for future investigations of ketamine's antidepressant properties. Mechanistically, sensitivity of visual networks for esketamine's effects may result from their high expression of NMDA-receptors.
Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
Journal: Scientific reports 
EISSN: 2045-2322
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-46702-x
Rights: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
© The Author(s) 2019
The following publication Spies, M., Klobl, M., Hoflich, A., Hummer, A., Vanicek, T., Michenthaler, P., . . . Lanzenberger, R. (2019). Association between dynamic resting-state functional connectivity and ketamine plasma levels in visual processing networks. Scientific Reports, 9, 11484, 1-13 is available at https://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-46702-x
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