Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/9167
Title: Microstructure, thermal analysis and hardness of a Sn-Ag-Cu-1 wt% nano-TiO 2 composite solder on flexible ball grid array substrates
Authors: Gain, AK
Chan, YC
Yung, WKC 
Issue Date: 2011
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Microelectronics reliability, 2011, v. 51, no. 5, p. 975-984 How to cite?
Journal: Microelectronics reliability 
Abstract: Sn-Ag-Cu composite solders reinforced with nano-sized, nonreacting, noncoarsening 1 wt% TiO 2 particles were prepared by mechanically dispersing TiO 2 nano-particles into Sn-Ag-Cu solder powder and the interfacial morphology of the solder and flexible BGA substrates were characterized metallographically. At their interfaces, different types of scallop-shaped intermetallic compound layers such as Cu 6Sn 5 for a Ag metallized Cu pad and Sn-Cu-Ni for a Au/Ni and Ni metallized Cu pad, were found in plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints and solder joints containing 1 wt% TiO 2 nano-particles. In addition, the intermetallic compound layer thicknesses increased substantially with the number of reflow cycles. In the solder ball region, Ag 3Sn, Cu 6Sn 5 and AuSn 4 IMC particles were found to be uniformly distributed in the β-Sn matrix. However, after the addition of TiO 2 nano-particles, Ag 3Sn, AuSn 4 and Cu 6Sn 5 IMC particles appeared with a fine microstructure and retarded the growth rate of IMC layers at their interfaces. The Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints containing 1 wt% TiO 2 nano-particles consistently displayed a higher hardness than that of the plain Sn-Ag-Cu solder joints as a function of the number of reflow cycles due to the well-controlled fine microstructure and homogeneous distribution of TiO 2 nano-particles which gave a second phase dispersion strengthening mechanism.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/9167
ISSN: 0026-2714
DOI: 10.1016/j.microrel.2011.01.006
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