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dc.contributorDepartment of Applied Mathematicsen_US
dc.contributorSchool of Nursingen_US
dc.creatorTao, Jen_US
dc.creatorZhang, Xen_US
dc.creatorMusa, SSen_US
dc.creatorYang, Len_US
dc.creatorHe, Den_US
dc.publisherFrontiers Research Foundationen_US
dc.rights© 2021 Tao, Zhang, Musa, Yang and He. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) ( The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.en_US
dc.rightsThe following publication Tao J, Zhang X, Musa SS, Yang L and He D (2021) High Infection Fatality Rate Among Elderly and Risk Factors Associated With Infection Fatality Rate and Asymptomatic Infections of COVID-19 Cases in Hong Kong. Front. Med. 8: 678347 is available at
dc.subjectAsymptomatic COVID-19 casesen_US
dc.subjectBoosted regression treeen_US
dc.subjectHong Kongen_US
dc.subjectInfection fatality rateen_US
dc.titleHigh infection fatality rate among elderly and risk factors associated with infection fatality rate and asymptomatic infections of COVID-19 cases in Hong Kongen_US
dc.typeJournal/Magazine Articleen_US
dcterms.abstractBackground: Since the emergence in December 2019, the COVID-19 pandemic has become one of the greatest global public health threats in history. However, asymptomatic infections have increased the challenges of providing accurate estimates for the infection fatality rate (IFR) of COVID-19. Methods: We calculated the asymptomatic case ratios based on the reported COVID-19 cases in Hong Kong where intensive testing has been conducted in close contacts and high-risk populations. We estimated the IFR using both symptomatic and asymptomatic cases as denominator. The boosted regression tree (BRT) and multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify relative contribution and effect size of the risk factors associated with the asymptomatic cases and IFRs. Results: The ratio of the asymptomatic patients in Hong Kong was higher than many other regions over the world. Imported cases had a higher asymptomatic proportion than local cases. Older age and male were associated with a higher IFR than younger age and females. Conclusion: Policymakers should consider the potential risk factors for the asymptomatic infections and IFRs by the Hong Kong surveillance data to mitigate the diseases and reduce the case mortality of COVID-19.en_US
dcterms.accessRightsopen accessen_US
dcterms.bibliographicCitationFrontiers in medicine, May 2021, v. 8, 678347en_US
dcterms.isPartOfFrontiers in medicineen_US
dc.description.validate202107 bcvcen_US
dc.description.oaVersion of Recorden_US
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