Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/8801
Title: The Evolution of Pi23kã34 ('he says') in Shanghainese
Authors: Han, W
Shi, D 
Keywords: Grammaticalization
Modal particle
Shanghainese
Topic-marking particle
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica
Source: Language and linguistics, 2014, v. 15, no. 4, p. 479-494 How to cite?
Journal: Language and Linguistics 
Abstract: This paper presents a novel analysis of the grammaticalization path of the various uses of Pi23kã34 ('he says') in modern Shanghainese. We propose that Pi23kã34 originated from a quotative clause, then developed its reportative use by making the source of information obscure (in the sentence-final position), and finally integrated with the proposition to form a modal particle indicative of the speaker's subjective evaluation. Recently, Pi23kã34 has been raised to topic position to serve as a topic-marking function; specifically, one that expresses a counter-expectation meaning. The whole process can be chronologized as follows: quotative clause > reportative clause > modal particle > topic-marking particle. Such a path is considered to be elegant and practical since not only do the stages involved gracefully follow the principles of grammaticalization as delineated by Hopper (1991, 1996), but it is also helpful for the analysis of similar patterns across languages.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/8801
ISSN: 1606-822X
DOI: 10.1177/1606822X14531898
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