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Title: Numerical simulation of cross-flow around four cylinders in an in-line square configuration
Authors: Lam, K
Gong, WQ
So, RMC 
Keywords: Flow pattern
Fluctuating pressure
Four cylinders
Issue Date: 2008
Publisher: Academic Press
Source: Journal of fluids and structures, 2008, v. 24, no. 1, p. 34-57 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of fluids and structures 
Abstract: Successful numerical simulations can reveal important flow characteristics and information which are extremely difficult to obtain experimentally. Two- and three-dimensional (3-D) numerical simulations of cross-flow around four cylinders in an in-line square configuration are performed using a finite-volume method. For 2-D studies, the Reynolds numbers (Re) are chosen to be Re=100 and 200 and the spacing ratio L/D is set at 1.6, 2.5, 3.5, 4.0 and 5.0. For the 3-D investigation, the simulation is only performed at a Re=200, a spacing ratio L/D=4.0 and an aspect ratio H/D=16. The 2-D studies reveal three distinct flow patterns: (I) a stable shielding flow; (II) a wiggling shielding flow and (III) a vortex shedding flow. A transformation of the flow pattern from (I) to (II) at Re=100 will increase the amplitude of the maximum fluctuating pressure on the downstream cylinder surface by 4-12 times, while a transformation of the flow pattern from (II) to (III) will enhance the maximum fluctuating pressure amplitude by 2-3 times. There is a large discrepancy between 2-D simulation and flow visualization results at L/D=4.0 and Re=200. A probable cause could be the strong 3-D effect at the ends of the cylinder at low H/D. It was found that, for an in-line square configuration at critical L/D and when H/D is lower than a certain value, 3-D effects are very significant at the ends of the cylinders. In such cases, a time-consuming 3-D numerical simulation will have to be performed if full replication of the flow phenomenon were to be achieved.
ISSN: 0889-9746
EISSN: 1095-8622
DOI: 10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2007.06.003
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