Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/81925
Title: A study on books for moral indoctrination ordered writing by the Ming emperors = 明代敕撰教化書籍研究
Authors: Zhou, Zhongliang (周中梁)
Advisors: Zhu, Honglin (CC)
Keywords: Didactic literature, Chinese -- China
Didactic literature, Chinese -- History and criticism
Chinese literature -- Ming dynasty, 1368-1644 -- History and criticism
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 明代諸帝推行教化政策的同時,不斷下令編撰乃至撰寫面向社會各羣體的教化書籍。內容包括直接的訓誡、歷史人物事蹟和先賢名儒的言論,語言上多採用淺近文言或白話,可統稱爲「敕撰教化書籍」。其中十餘種至今尚存。明太祖朱元璋是明初教化事業和敕撰教化書籍傳統的開創者,其動機可從多方面論證。在個人經歷方面,朱元璋少年時因天災瘟疫而家破人亡,成爲紅軍將領後重新聚集家族,培養侄子朱文正、外甥李文忠爲親信將領,結果與二人先後發生矛盾,但仍不放棄以儒家倫理維繫家庭的努力。元朝統治中原後,漢人士大夫中出現了對其「污染」漢人風俗的指責 。明太祖個人雖在華夷問題上無激進看法,但積極利用這種風俗論說,爲其改革元朝政治提供依據。此外,當時南方出現一種貶低北方風俗的說法,明太祖則不取其說,反而讚美北方風俗質樸。明太祖的教化事業得到了後輩儒臣方孝孺的回應。方孝孺雖對明太祖的具體做法有所反對,但對其加以認真的討論和反思,實際是認同了太祖貫徹教化政策的真心明代敕撰教化書籍的成書時間,集中於洪武至景泰(1368-1458)之間的九十年間。其中可確定爲洪武時期編撰的就有三十三種。永樂時期有七種,宣德時期有四種,正統、景泰時期各有一種。之後直到明亡的一百八十多年中,再無皇帝敕撰的教化書籍,僅有的三部都是以皇太后的名義編纂的。洪武時期的敕撰書可按照明太祖下令敕撰書籍的直接原因,大致分爲三類:爲配合制度創設、更改而公佈者;因重大政治事件而發者;源於明太祖自身教化觀念者。就制度與教化的結合方面而言,從書籍本身的體例來看,制度條文與勸懲故事、訓誡之語往往夾雜在一起,說明洪武君臣認爲制度條文與樸實的解釋、生動的利害分析和形象的故事應當讓讀者同步閱讀,幫助其理解和接受朝廷制度。在面向的對象方面,有爲主持制度運行者、制度管理對象、教化者寫作的書籍。在教化觀念方面,可以觀察到有太祖對「四民」概念的理解與應用,和他學而成師、踐行君師職責的歷程這兩點線索。敕撰教化書籍的傳統在洪武朝後大約延續了半個世紀後趨於衰落。永樂時期大多種勸誡書的編撰都緣於皇位繼承問題及皇帝本人的身體問題等事件有關,與政治制度無關,與洪武朝有衆多勸誡書緣於制度創設不同。這符合成祖宣揚的「悉復舊制」和明代政治制度趨於穩定的大勢。明宣宗時期編撰的教化書籍圍繞政治倫理展開,主要寄託皇帝個人的政治體會。英宗繼承父志,圍繞五種基本倫理關係編撰《五倫書》,顯示自己的孝心。在政局平穩過渡、統治秩序安定的宣、正之際,敕撰勸誡書已成爲一種政治上的點綴。但到了土木之變後的景泰時期,敕撰勸誡書的目的又變得非常貼合現實政治需要。成化以後,明廷停止以皇帝名義編撰勸誡書,之後有教化性質的文本在定位上更近於「雅」而非「俗」,而政治意義的重要不減明初。編撰勸誡書籍以擡高自身地位的辦法則被之後的宮廷女性繼承。明太祖以「君師合一」的觀念自任。但明太祖所「爲」之師是日常倫理之師,所勸諭的內容都以儒家倫理爲本。既不以道統之說來壓制持異議的士人,也沒有全然服膺理學去誘導理學家認可其得道統之傳。無論在思想上還是祭祀制度上,太祖都對儒學的道統加以尊敬。太祖追求君與民之間的直接交流,發行《大誥》直接勸諭百姓,鼓勵百姓抓捕貪官污吏上京,並以「聖君」與「活佛」之形象勸誡百姓。太祖亦試圖將戶役制度與四民觀念結合起來。永樂至宣德時期(1403-1435),明朝與朝鮮的關係十分密切。明方將新出的敕撰書籍大量頒發給朝鮮,包括敕撰教化書籍在內,朝鮮也抓住這一機會,積極求取用於宮廷教育的理學、經史書籍。同時,朝鮮方面因實行崇儒抑佛的政策,對一些帶有宗教色彩的明朝敕撰書籍持排斥態度。但因在對外政策上與明朝存在分歧,且恐懼明朝的軍事實力及強硬對外態度,故採取陽奉陰違的做法,更令這些書籍帶上了灰暗的歷史記憶,影響其接受效果。不過,一些朝鮮士大夫仍然採錄明朝敕撰的教化書來編輯教本,其中包括帶有神異色彩和報應觀念的故事。
While the emperors of the Ming Dynasty were implementing moral indoctrination policy, they successively ordered the compilation of didactic books for all groups of people in the empire. Some were even written by themselves. The content of the didactic books includes direct exhortation, historical stories, and maxims of sages and ancient Confucians. They are usually in vernacular language. In this thesis, I call them 'books for moral indoctrination ordered writing by the emperors'. More than ten of them still exist today. Emperor Ming Taizu, Zhu Yuanzhang was the pioneer of the moral indoctrination enterprise of the early Ming Dynasty. He started the tradition of commissioning writing of didactic books, and his motives can be demonstrated in several ways. In terms of personal experience, Zhu Yuanzhang's family broke because of natural disaster and plague. He became a 'Red Army' general and even was able to regroup his family. He trained his nephew Zhu Wenzheng and sister’s son Li Wenzhong as his loyal lieutenants. Although the result was a tragedy, he still did not give up holding together the family with Confucian ethics. The Yuan Dynasty which conquered agricultural China was accused by Han scholar-officals as having "polluted" social customs of Han people. Although Ming Taizu Emperor held no personally radical views on the distinction of Hua–Yi/barbarian peoples, he did actively use this ethical argument to provide a basis for reforming the politics of the Yuan Dynasty. When there was a saying in the south that degraded the customs of the northern people, he rather praised the simplicity of the northern customs. The moral indoctrination of Ming Taizu was echoed by younger Confucian scholars like Fang Xiaoru. Although Fang Xiaoru objected to Ming Taizu’s specific practices, he seriously discussed and reflected on the issue. Fang actually acknowledged the good motive of Ming Taizu’s implemention of the moral indoctrination policy. The time of writing such moral books ordered by the Ming emperors was concentrated in the ninety years between Hongwu and Jingtai (1368-1458). Of the books written, thirty-three can be identified as compiled during the Hongwu period, Seven in the Yongle period, four in the Xuande period, and one in both the Zhengtong and Jingtai periods. After that, until the collapse of the Ming dynasty, no more didactic books were written or odered writing by the emperor, although three were compiled in the name of Empress Dowagers. According to the explicit reasons that Ming Taizu Emperor ordered such writings, these books can be roughly divided into three categories: those that were published to enhance the effect of the creation and modification of the administrative system, those issued due to major political events, and those came from Ming Taizu's ideas of moral indoctrination. The tradition of writing didactic books declined about half a century after the Hongwu reign. Most of the didactic books written in the Yongle period were related to special events, such as the succession of the throne and the health problems of the emperor himself. It had nothing to do with the political system, same as many such books written in Hongwu period which had nothing to do with institutional creation. Rather, it was in line with the "recovery of the old system" concept advocated by the Chengzu Emperor. The moral indoctrinational books compiled during the Xuande period revolved around political ethics, mainly because of the personal political experience of the emperor. Yingzong Emperor inherited his father's ambition and compiled the Book of Five basic ethical relationships (Wulun shu) to show his filial piety. The publication of such books in the politically stable times made them appeared decorative. Nevertheless, in the Jingtai period after the infamous Tumu incident, when the Yingzong emperor was captured by the Mongols, the purpose of compiling didactic books again fitted political needs in the real way. After the Chenghua period, the Ming court stopped compiling exhortation books in the name of the emperor. Meanwhile, the style of didact text became more "elegant" than "vulgar", and its political significance was not lost. The compilation of such books was inherited, however, by the court ladies. Ming Taizu Emperor took the role of "the combination of the monarch and the teacher". However, the teacher character that Ming Taizu tried to show is one of an ethics teacher; the content of his exhortation was based on Confucian ethics. Both in words that spoke his mind and in sacrificial practices, Taizu respected orthodox/"Daotong" Confucianism. He pursued a policy that enabled direct communication between the monarch and his subjects. He encouraged people to arrest corrupt officials and took them to the capital, and advised the people with the image of a "sacred monarch" and a "living Buddha". From the Yongle to the Xuande period (1403-1435), the relationship between the Ming Dynasty and Joseon Kingdom was very close. The Ming Dynasty bestowed a large number of new books on Joseon, including the didactic books. At the same time, Joseon had adopted a policy of advocating Confucianism and suppressing Buddhism. Some Joseon civil officials were repulsive to some religious books from the Ming Dynasty. The Joseon court, however, accept such books out of fears of the Ming military strengths, which rendered them a dark historical memory. Korean scholars also used such didactic books written in the name of Ming emperors to edit their school textbooks, including those with stories of supernatural plots and retribution concepts.
Description: 314 pages
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P CC 2019 Zhou
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/81925
Rights: All rights reserved.
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