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dc.contributor.authorLiu, Yen_US
dc.contributor.authorShu, GPen_US
dc.contributor.authorChan, SLen_US
dc.identifier.citationProceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures (ASCCS 2018), Jun 27-29, 2018, University of Politecnica Valencia, Valencia, Spain 2018, p. 393-400en_US
dc.description.abstractSecond-order direct analysis has been used in some regions for reliable analysis and design of steel structures. Currently, the stiffness-based element is widely used with accuracy improved by enforcing equilibrium along mid-span or "stations" along the member length in order to achieve equilibrium which is not guaranteed along an element. In this paper, a flexibility-based beam-column element considering member imperfection based on Hellinger-Reissner functional is developed and used for practical second-order direct analysis. This new element is a flexibility-based element with member initial bowing at the element level for direct analysis of three-dimensional frame analysis whereas previous flexibility-based elements assumed perfectly straight geometry for the element. The fiber plastic hinge approach is adopted to account for the distributed plasticity of a section. The new flexibility-based element performs excellently for modeling of members under high stress with material yielded as the conventional stiffness-based element has less accuracy when few elements are used in modeling a plastic member. This will significantly enhance accuracy and computational efficiency for direct plastic analysis which can then be more widely used in practical design. Several examples are employed to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed element along this line of thought.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineeringen_US
dc.publisherUniversity of Politecnica Valenciaen_US
dc.rights2018, Universitat Politècnica de València, CC BY-NC-ND. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License Attribution-NonComercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (
dc.rightsThe following publication Liu, Y., Shu, G. P., & Chan, S. L. (2018, June). Direct plastic analysis of steel structures by flexibility-based element with initial imperfection. In Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Advances in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures. ASCCS 2018 (pp. 393-400). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València is available at
dc.subjectDirect analysisen_US
dc.subjectInitial imperfectionen_US
dc.subjectPlastic zoneen_US
dc.subjectFiber sectionen_US
dc.titleDirect plastic analysis of steel structures by flexibility-based element with initial imperfectionen_US
dc.typeConference Paperen_US
dc.relation.conferenceInternational Conference on Advances in Steel-Concrete Composite Structures [ASCCS]-
dc.description.validate201907 bcrc-
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