Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/80998
Title: 陽明學在清代的傳播與發展 : 以江西、浙江為例 = Spread and development of Yangming School in Jiangxi and Zhejiang Provinces during the Qing dynasty
Authors: Huang, Tao (黃濤)
Advisors: Zhu, Honglin (朱鴻林) (CC)
Keywords: Neo-Confucianism -- China
Confucianism -- China
Philosophy, Chinese -- Qing dynasty, 1644-1912
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 學術界普遍認為,明代盛極一時的陽明學隨著晚明清初「由王返朱」的思想趨勢以及經史考據之學的興起,在清代出現了衰落的態勢。晚清以康有為(1858—1927)、梁啟超(1873—1929)等人對王學的提倡為代表,陸王心學出現了復興的趨勢。學術界往往將其原因歸之為日本陽明學復興的影響。然而,事實上,陽明學在晚清的復興,應當在中國內部有其思想基礎。研究清代陽明學的發展狀況,有助於我們進一步認識理學在清代的地位和作用,並豐富我們對於晚清革命和改良運動的理解。有鑒於此,本文以江西、浙江為中心,分為六章,討論清代陽明學的發展趨勢及晚清陽明學復興的原因;關注的重心並非在於若干重要思想家的哲學理念,而是陽明學在社會的展現,包括對陽明的祠祀所反映的其學術地位的升降、陽明學在中下層士人中的傳播等。其中包含傳播與發展兩個方面。傳播是指一個觀念或學說傳到不同的地域或群體,其內容常會簡化或因應不同媒體而改變;發展則指通過學者思考或適應不同環境,而深化或變異其內容。由江西祠堂祭祀的狀況來看,儘管康熙後期陽明學出現了衰落,但乾、嘉時期仍然得到傳承,當地的士人通過論證陽明學與朱子學並非對立、由陽明的學術肯定其事功這兩種方式為其辯護,這為道光年間(1821—1850)陽明學的復興奠定了基礎。而浙江的情況則與之不完全相同,康熙年間(1661—1722)陽明學受到程朱學者的嚴厲批判,不過隨著雍正年間(1723—1735)呂留良案的爆發,清廷尊朱立場動搖,民間興起了一股為陽明學辯護的思潮,其地位獲得了提升。此後儘管考據學盛行、程朱理學又出現了復興的趨勢,但仍然有一些士人在修身實踐中對陽明學加以吸收和利用。清代江西、浙江王學發展狀況的差異可以歸結為傳播方式的不同,江西主要是地方官員通過修祠堂的方式提倡,而浙江的影響則在民間,尤其是士人的修身實踐之上。造成這種差異的原因,可以歸結到制度對於學術傳播的保障上。隨著書院的官學化、舉業化,講學不能再作為陽明學的一種傳播方式而存在,故而陽明學在浙江的傳播失去了制度保障。與之形成對比的是,由於江西一直存在會黨等反清勢力,當地地方官以嚴查保甲制度為當務之急,而清代江西施行的保甲制度又可以看到陽明「十家牌法」的影響,甚至有的地方官認為「十家牌法」是最為理想的保甲制度,並由此肯定陽明的學術。可以說,保甲制度形成了陽明學在江西傳播的制度保障。本文認為,陽明學在晚清的復興,應當放在嘉、道以後學術發展演變的整體趨勢中予以考慮。在經世之學復興的背景下,陽明的事功受到了肯定,只論其事功而不論其學術,代表了一部分儒者的態度;另一部分儒者則由「正風俗」的理念出發,肯定陽明學在激發良心方面的作用。在義理之學復興的背景下,「誠意」、「正念頭」等陽明學的一些「治心」方法,被運用到士人的修身實踐中。而在漢宋兼采論之下,陽明的「知行合一」也受到一些考據學家的肯定。凡此種種,構成了晚清陽明學復興的思想基礎。康有為、梁啟超對於王學的肯定與吸收,大致上不出以上的範圍。因此,日本對晚清陽明學復興的影響,只是輔助性因素。此外,我們在注重康、梁思想中對今文經學的利用這一革新方面的同時,也應當看到其繼承傳統之一面。當然,晚清的一些改良派與革命派,如宋恕(1862—1910)與劉師培(1884—1919)等,強調陽明以自己的本心為依歸,不盲從古人與權威,由此將其作為變法與革命運動的思想基礎。這是陽明學發展到晚清所出現的新特點。本文將雍正朝作為清代陽明學發展史上的轉折點,一方面經過康熙後期的短暫衰落之後,陽明學此時已經出現了復興的趨勢,其後地位逐漸提升,直至晚清獲得改良派與革命派的普遍認同。另一方面在傳播方式上,由於雍正帝(1678—1735,1722—1735 在位)打擊朋黨的政治措施,而崇尚陸王學的李紱(1673—1750)又成為雍正帝打擊的對象,這使得講學作為陽明學的一種傳播方式,在長達一百五十年的時間內淡出了歷史舞台。由此本文提出,我們應當重視雍正朝在清代思想發展歷史中的承上啟下地位。本文將清人對陽明學的態度區分為官方、批判者、信奉者、一般常識四個不同層次。強調陽明的事功受到普遍肯定。尤其是朝廷和地方官員主要由實用的角度出發,肯定陽明在江西所建立的功業。對於陽明學在清代的傳承,我們需要分辨成為「口頭禪」的王陽明思想,和「知行合一」、「致良知」、「格物正念頭」的陽明心學。批判者所針對的,往往是前者而非後者,這造成他們對於真正的陽明心學,反而未能準確領會,以至於誤讀陽明的「心即理」與「知行合一」。整體而言,在陽明的思想中,清人對「心即理」非議最多,而「知行合一」則受到較多肯定。在更為普及的層面上,陽明被視為明代儒者的代表,他有關如何「事上磨練」的論述,則是被蒙書等文獻引用較多的。就陽明學在清代的傳播方式而言,包括修建祠堂,通過祭奠、題詩、作畫像贊、撰寫碑記等形式擴大陽明學術的影響;士人之間通過結社、書信交流、互相批閱修身日記等方式討論講習;蒙書、類書等文獻對陽明著作的引用等。
It is widely believed in the academic world that the Yangming school of Neo-Confucianism, which was in full flourish in Ming Dynasty, became declined in Qing Dynasty. This was due to a returning to Zhu Xi’s (1130-1200) blend of Neo-Confucianism which Wang Yangming (1472-1529) and his school had overshadowed in the Ming, as well as nd the rise of historical textual research which began from late Ming and became prominent in early Qing times. However, the advocacy of Kang Youwei (1858—1927), Liang Qichao (1873— 1929) and others in the late Qing also resulted in a revival of the Yangming school, which embraces the learning of the mind taught by Wang and his intellectual predecessor in the Song, Lu Jiuyuan (1139-1193). This revival of Yangming learning has often been attributed to the rise of the Yangming school in Japan that contributed much to the Meiji Restoration. This study argues that in fact the revival of Yangming school in late Qing had its ideological foundation in China itself. Studying the development of Yangming school in the Qing Dynasty, as the present research does, indeed helps us to understand the position and the role of Neo-Confucianism in late Qing, thus also enrich our knowledge of the impetus of the reform and revolution activities in that period of time. The present thesis comprises of six chapters with accounts of the development of Yangming learning in the provinces of Jiangxi and Zhejiang, both of which strong bases of the spread of Wang Yingming’s teaching in the Ming, which also explain the reasons for its revival in late Qing. In particular, istead of the philosophical concepts of emiment thinkers in these areas, the research focuses on the actual influence of the Yangming school in the society as reflected in the ways Wang was enshrined and worshipped in these areas, as well as the changes in the status of Wang as historical Confucian master and scholar official, and the spread of Yangming’s teachings among middle and lower-tiers scholars. The thesis focus on the transmission and development of the Yangming school in Jiangxi and Zhejiang. Transmission refers to the movement of a concept or a school of thoughts to a different region or community. The concept or thought might undergo a process of simplification or changes in response to the medium of transmission. Development, on the other hand, refers to the deepening or transformation of the concept or thought through scholarly reflections or the adaptation to a different setting. The study first focused on the building and maintenance of places that mark Wang’s worship – the memorial shrines in Jiangxi. It is found that such shrines were well kept down to the Qianlong (1736—1795) and Jiaqing (1796—1820) periods after a decline during the late Kangxi period (1662-1722). Local scholars defended the Yangming school by demonstrating Wang’s contributions and his similarity to the rival Cheng-Zhu of Neo-Confucianism which was the state ideology. This laid a foundation for the revival of the Yangming school during Daoguang period(1821—1850). Things were not exactly the same in Zhejiang, however. The Yangming school was severely criticized by the Cheng-Zhu school during the Kangxi period. But the outburst of the case of Lü Liuliang (1629-1683), a renowned Cheng-Zhu scholar and staunch Ming loyalist critical of the “barbarian” original of the Manchu Qing, during the Yongzheng period (1723—1735) weakened much the position Cheng-Zhu scholar-officials in the imperial court. Simultaneously, the defence given to the Yangming school also increased. Despite the rise of the evidential school of textual research and attempts to enhance the influence of the Cheng-Zhu school, more scholars were found to have absorbed and used Yangming teachings for practices of self-cultivation. These provincial differences in the development of the Yangming school are reflected in the ways it was recognized and the modes of its transmission. In Jiangxi, local officials tried to advocate the school by building memorial shrines; in Zhejing, it was more self-cultivation of scholars using methods advocated by Wang. Institutions of scholarly communication explain much of this difference. As more academies were run by the government and served mainly the purpose of bettering successes in the imperial examinations, academies’ formal function of giving scholarly philosophical lectures was lost. This was especially clear in Zhejiang. Meanwhile, local officials in Jiangxi were fond of using the the bao-jia system of security control introduced by Wang Yingming to suppress the antiQing secret societies in the province. The success of this control mechanism led officials to approve of Wang’s teachings, and thus in a way provided an institutional guarantee to their recognition and promotion
The research of this thesis also brought into consideration the Yangming school’s revival in late Qing in terms of the overall development of the scholarly world after the Jiaqing and Daoguang periods when the thought of practical learning in statecraft knowledge was on the rise. Wang Yangming was seen and approved of by Confucian scholars as a man of action rather than empty talks. Those who cherished the idea of “rectification of customs” saw the impact of Yangming’s eaching in arousing man’s conscience. Wang Yangming’s ways of “mind managing” (zhixin 治心) were used for self-cultivation. His doctrine of “unity of knowing and doing” was also affirmed by some textual research scholars. Such was the intellectual climate that influenced the advocacy of Yangming leanring by people like Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao who saw reforms by action. Thus, the influence of Japan on the revival of Yangming learning in late Qing was at best an secondary factor. Political reformists and revolutionaries in the late Qing, such as Song Shu(1862—1910)and Liu Shipei(1884—1919), also emphasized Yangming’s concept of sticking to one’s belief without following the authorities and ancients, and turned it into the thought foundation of their actions. This is a new impact of Yangming’s in the late Qing. From a historical perspective, the present thesis takes the Yongzheng period as the turning point in the history of the Yangming school in the Qing Dynasty. On the one hand, the school had begun to revive after a brief decline during the Kangxi period. Its position became strong gradually thereafter. On the other hand, Li Fu(1673—1750), who actively advocated Lu Jiuyuan and Wang Yangming, became the Yongzheng Emperor’s(1678—1735)arm to cashier factional offcials who claimed Cheng-Zhu intellctual inheritance. Although the resulting stop of Ming-style lecture delivery in the academies also much hindered the transmission of Yangming’s philosophy in that fashion, the Yongzheng period still played a connective role in the final revival of Wang’s impactful teachings in the late Qing. This thesis has studied the attitudes toward the Yangming school from four kind of people in the Qing Dynasty: scholar-officials, opponents to the Wang school, believers of Wang, and people of no particular adhernece. The finding is that most of these people viewed that Wang Yangming's contributions in this teachings and political-military achievements should be emphasized. This view was especially popular among Qing government and local officials. For the heritage of the Yangming school in the Qing Dynasty, we need to distinguish Yangming’s thoughts promoted as catch phrases from his leanring of the mind, including the influential doctrines of “unity of knowing and doing” and “attaining innate knowledge”. His critics and opponents often aimed the “catch phrases” for an attack, misrepresenting the gist of Wang’s thought and teachings whether delibereately or not. At best they misunderstood Wang’s doctrines of “mind is principle” and “unity of knowing and doing.” But as a whole, more people studied in this research criticized the doctrine of “heart is principle” but affirmed the doctrine of “unity of knowing and doing.” Most people considered Wang a representative of Confucianism in the Ming Dynasty and his idea and discourse on"cultivate [one’s person] in practice" an admirable pedagogical method. This is reflected in its citation in rudimentary educational books and other literatures. The Yangming school had more than one mode of transmission during the Qing Dynasty -- building memorial shrinces, holding worship ceremonies, composing commemorative poems, creation of his portraits, making stele inscriptions were all ways to increase his influence in academics honoring him. Scholars discussed and studied his thoughts by forming private associations, exchange of letters discussing his ideas and doctrines and biography, reflecting their own conduct with reference to Wang’s teachings in their own diaries of moral cultivation. The rudimentary educational books and encyplodpias for commonfolk knowledge also spread his ideas and teachings by including his writings.  
Description: x, iii, 400 leaves
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P CC 2019 Huang
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/80998
Rights: All rights reserved.
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