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Title: Investigation on the use of pumps in HVAC systems for providing ancillary services in smart grids
Authors: Wang, H 
Wang, S 
Tang, R 
Keywords: Ancillary services
Demand response
Smart Grid
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Energy procedia, 2019, v. 159, p. 219-224 How to cite?
Journal: Energy procedia 
Abstract: The proportion of electric generation from renewable resource has been growing rapidly in recent years, especially in Microgrids in remote areas. However, the intermitted nature of the renewable energy resource has posed a great pressure on the reliability of power grids and asked a great amount of ancillary services, especially for frequency regulation (FR). Heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are promising resources to solve this challenge because they can take full use of thermal storage capacity of buildings. In this paper, a pump in HVAC system in a hotel is employed to provide the frequency regulation by adjusting its frequency to follow the automatic generation control (AGC) signals, RegA and RegD signals from Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland (PJM). Performance scores are adopted to assess the control performance. In addition, the thermal capacity of the cooling coil is considered to evaluate its side-effect when providing this service. The results indicate that the pump can provide nearly 30kW total capacity with a relatively high average performance score. Moreover, the impact to indoor air temperature is almost neglectable with the thermal capacity of the cooling coil and indoor air hedging against the fluctuation of pump frequency.
Description: 2018 Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrid, REM 2018, Greece, 28-30 September 2018
EISSN: 1876-6102
DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2018.12.054
Rights: © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the scientific committee of the Applied Energy Symposium and Forum, Renewable Energy Integration with Mini/Microgrides, REM 2018.
The following publication Wang, H., Wang, S., & Tang, R. (2019). Investigation on the Use of Pumps in HVAC Systems for Providing Ancillary Services in Smart Grids. Energy Procedia, 159, 219-224 is available at
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