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Title: Characterization and actuation of ionic polymer metal composites with various thicknesses and lengths
Authors: Li, S
Yip, J 
Keywords: Actuation
Repeated actuations
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Source: Polymers, 2019, v. 11, no. 1, 91 How to cite?
Journal: Polymers 
Abstract: Ionic polymer metal composites (IPMCs) with various thicknesses of 1, 2, 4, and 6 nafion films (denoted as 1-film, 2-film, 4-film and 6-film, respectively) are fabricated, and their characterization and actuation performances are then investigated. The effects of the thickness of the IPMCs on their morphology, surface resistance, and water uptake capability are studied. Their actuation performances are further evaluated by examining the tip force and displacement in terms of the length and the thickness of the IPMCs, under a direct current (DC) power of 3.0 or 4.5 V. In comparison with the 1-film, the 2-film shows a six-fold increase in the maximum tip force, but the response time increases from 2 to 9 s. The 4-film doubles the maximum tip force of the 2-film at 21 s. On the other hand, a reduction of the length of the IPMC from 30 to 15 mm also results in a double-maximum tip force, but this never increases the response time. Repeated actuations of the IPMCs with various thicknesses are performed by three actuation methods of no treatment, treatment in deionized water, and treatment in a NaCl solution. The relationships between the repeated actuation methods and actuations of the IPMCs with various thicknesses are also investigated.
ISSN: 2073-4360
DOI: 10.3390/polym11010091
Rights: © 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (
The following publication Li S, Yip J. Characterization and Actuation of Ionic Polymer Metal Composites with Various Thicknesses and Lengths. Polymers. 2019; 11(1):91 is available at
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