Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/78385
Title: Structural and chemical changes to CH3NH3PbI3 induced by electron and gallium ion beams
Authors: Rothmann, MU
Li, W
Zhu, Y 
Liu, A
Ku, ZL
Bach, U
Etheridge, J
Cheng, YB
Keywords: CH3NH3PbI3
Composition
Focused ion beam
Structure
Transmission electron microscope
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Wiley-VCH
Source: Advanced materials, 20 June 2018, v. 30, no. 25, 1800629 How to cite?
Journal: Advanced materials 
Abstract: Organic-inorganic hybrid perovskites, such as CH3NH3PbI3, have shown highly promising photovoltaic performance. Electron microscopy (EM) is a powerful tool for studying the crystallography, morphology, interfaces, lattice defects, composition, and charge carrier collection and recombination properties at the nanoscale. Here, the sensitivity of CH3NH3PbI3 to electron beam irradiation is examined. CH3NH3PbI3 undergoes continuous structural and compositional changes with increasing electron dose, with the total dose, rather than dose rate, being the key operative parameter. Importantly, the first structural change is subtle and easily missed and occurs after an electron dose significantly smaller than that typically applied in conventional EM techniques. The electron dose conditions under which these structural changes occur are identified. With appropriate dose-minimization techniques, electron diffraction patterns can be obtained from pristine material consistent with the tetragonal CH3NH3PbI3 phases determined by X-ray diffraction. Radiation damage incurred at liquid nitrogen temperatures and using Ga+ irradiation in a focused ion beam instrument are also examined. Finally, some simple guidelines for how to minimize electron-beam-induced artifacts when using EM to study hybrid perovskite materials are provided.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/78385
ISSN: 0935-9648
EISSN: 1521-4095
DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800629
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