Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/77901
Title: Metal(loid) immobilization in soils with biochars pyrolyzed in N2 and CO2 environments
Authors: Igalavithana, AD
Yang, X
Zahra, HR
Tack, FMG
Tsang, DCW 
Kwon, EE
Ok, YS
Keywords: Black carbon
Charcoal
Pyrolysis
Surface functional groups
Toxic metals
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Science of the total environment, 2018, v. 630, p. 1103-1114 How to cite?
Journal: Science of the total environment 
Abstract: Previous studies indicated that using CO2 as a reaction agent in the pyrolysis of biomass led to an enhanced generation of syngas via direct reaction between volatile organic carbons (VOCs) evolved from the thermal degradation of biomass and CO2. In addition, the physico-chemical properties of biochar in CO2 were modified. In this current study, biochars generated from red pepper stalks in N2 and CO2 (RPS-N and RPS-C, respectively) were tested for their effects on the immobilization of Pb, Cd, Zn, and As in contaminated soils. Soils were incubated for one month with 2.5% of RPS, and two biochars (i.e., RPS-N and RPS-C) at 25 °C. After the incubation period soils were analyzed to determine the amendment effects on the behavior of metal(loid)s. The potential availability and mobility kinetics of metal(loid)s were assessed by single extraction of ammonium acetate and consecutive extraction of calcium chloride, respectively. Sequential extraction was used to further examine potential changes in geochemical fractions of metal(loid)s. The increased soil pH induced by application of the biochars reduced the potentially available Pb, Cd, and Zn, while RPS-C significantly reduced Pb due to the high surface area and aromaticity of RPS-C. However, RPS-C mobilized potentially available As compared to RPS-N due to the increased soil pH. Biochars reduced the mobility kinetics of Pb, Cd, and Zn, and RPS-N effectuated the greatest reduction of As mobility. The RPS-C increased the Fe and Mn oxides, hydroxide, and organically bound Pb, while both biochars and RPS-N increased residual Cd and Zn, and organically bound As, respectively. When considering the two biochars, RPS-C was highly effective for immobilization of Pb in soils, but it had no effect on Cd and Zn and a negative effect on As. In addition, RPS-C significantly increased the total exchangeable cations in soils.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/77901
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.185
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