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Title: Salt soda in Maoist China : a study of the Chinese communist party's labor protection policy = 毛時代的鹽汽水 : 一項中共勞動保護政策的考察
Authors: Zhang, Rui (張瑞)
Advisors: 翟志成 (CC), 徐啟軒 (CC)
Keywords: Labor policy -- China
Employee rights -- China
Labor -- Social aspects -- China
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 勞動保護的概念源自於十九世紀早期的西方工人運動。在中共革命歷史以及中國近代歷史中,勞工運動是其中的重要一環。但對於中共在建政後所實施的勞動保護這一問題,學界鮮有考察。因而,本文將透過鹽汽水這一勞動保護用品考察中共建政後所推行的勞動保護政策,並試圖分析這項勞動保護政策最終失敗的主要原因。除序言與結語以外,本文的正文分為四個章節。第一章首先指出了中共勞動保護的工作重心在建政初期所發生的轉變,催生了鹽汽水這一專門應對高溫環境的勞動保護用品。而中共在1954年發起的「防暑降溫」運動,又將鹽汽水推至勞動保護工作的一線地位。自此,鹽汽水開始在中國的國營工廠中普及,大量汽水站也在同期建立,製備鹽汽水成為工廠的重要任務之一。第二章主要揭示了鹽汽水在「一五」期間的落實中出現的種種問題。造成這些問題的原因主要在於行政和工會對於鹽汽水是否屬於「福利」的認識上的矛盾,以及參與生產和使用鹽汽水的不同人羣基於個人所關心之問題各執一詞的爭論。第三章主要考察了鹽汽水在「大躍進」期間中共宣傳中的重要地位。在官方的視野中,鹽汽水已由「工人福利」的象徵轉變為鋼鐵行業的增產法寶。這體現在文字宣傳敘述策略的變化,以及圖像宣傳構圖的變化之中。總之,官方不再單獨強調鹽汽水的消費場景,而是將其置於生產場景中加以宣傳。鑑於圍繞鹽汽水的爭論在「大躍進」以後的消失,餘論簡述了鹽汽水在這一時期的生產和使用清況。不過官方仍然強調使用鹽汽水在政治倫理和具體作用兩個層面的意義。同時,鹽汽水亦開始流入民間,成為一種普通的消暑用品。通過對於鹽汽水發展歷史的考察,這項研究闡明了中共勞動保護的實質,對於中國當代勞工問題的研究,亦提供了一個全新的視野。
The concept of "labor protection" originated from European labor movements in the early nineteenth Century. While it is widely acknowledged that labor activism played an important role in the Chinese Communist Party's (CCP) revolutionary history, "labor protection" has been overlooked by scholars. This dissertation investigates the CCP's labor protection policy through the lens of a curious drink known as salt soda (yan qishui), which was integral to the ruling party's labor protection policy in the People's Republic of China, and explores the main causes leading to its failure as a labor protection measure. In addition to the introduction and conclusion, this dissertation consists of four chapters. Chapter one investigates the birth of salt soda in the early years of the People’s Republic. Shortly after the CCP ascended to national power, it shifted the focus of labor protection from establishing relevant regulations to providing practical measures against occupational diseases due to excessive industrial production prompted by the outbreak of the Korean War in 1950. To prevent workers' heatstroke occurring on factory floors, the Tianjin Steelwork drew on the Soviet Union's experience of labor protection and began in 1952 to prepare salt soda, which was considered to be a refreshing drink and effective in remedying the loss of salt in the human body. After the "Heatstroke Prevention" (fangshu jiangwen) movement launched by the CCP in 1954, more and more factories began to mass-produce salt soda. Since then, the distribution of salt soda had become a priority in the CCP’s labor protection policy. A large number of soda stations were established and became indispensable features of state-run factories. Chapter two reveals the problems in the distribution of salt soda in state-run factories during the First Five-Years Plan. These problems are firstly attributed to conflicts between administration and trade union over whether salt soda should be defined as "welfare". Secondly, people from different backgrounds engaged in the production and distribution salt soda had starkly distinct concerns and found little common ground, further impeding the policy's implementation. Chapter three analyses the role salt soda played in the official propaganda during the Great Leap Forward movement. During the Great Leap Forward movement, salt soda frequently featured in political propaganda as a symbol of industrial achievement. As far as the CCP was concerned, salt soda was not just a "socialist welfare" item but a magical supplement that enhanced workers' productivity. This view was reflected in the narrative strategy of propaganda texts and the composition of propaganda images. In short, Communist officials considered salt soda not only as an item of consumption but also as one embedded in the production process. Taking into account that debates surrounding salt soda ended with the Great Leap Forward movement, the epilogue briefly surveys the distribution of salt soda from 1963 to present-day China. During that time, Communist officials emphasized the significance of the salt soda in terms of both political ideals and practical functions. At the same time, salt soda became available beyond the factory floor as a regular drink for ordinary people in 1970s. By tracing the development of salt soda, the dissertation sheds new light on labor protection policy in Communist China and provides a new perspective for researching labor issues in present-day China.
Description: viii, 127 leaves : illustrations
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577M CC 2018 Zhang
Rights: All rights reserved.
Appears in Collections:Thesis

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