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Title: Covalent functionalization of MoS2 nanosheets synthesized by liquid phase exfoliation to construct electrochemical sensors for Cd (II) detection
Authors: Gan, X 
Zhao, H
Wong, KY 
Lei, DY 
Zhang, Y
Quan, X
Keywords: Cd2+
Electrochemical sensor
Few-layer MoS2 nanosheets
Phase exfoliation
Surface functionalization
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Talanta, 2018, v. 182, p. 38-48 How to cite?
Journal: Talanta 
Abstract: Surface functionalization is an effective strategy in the precise control of electronic surface states of two-dimensional materials for promoting their applications. In this study, based on the strong coordination interaction between the transition-metal centers and N atoms, the surface functionalization of few-layer MoS 2 nanosheets was successfully prepared by liquid phase exfoliation method in N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF), 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone, and formamide. The cytotoxicity of surface-functionalized MoS 2 nanosheets was for the first time evaluated by the methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazoliumbromide assays. An electrochemical sensor was constructed based on glass carbon electrode (GCE) modified by MoS 2 nanosheets obtained in DMF, which exhibits relatively higher sensitivity to Cd 2+ detection and lower cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. The mechanisms of surface functionalization and selectively detecting Cd 2+ were investigated by density functional theory calculations together with various spectroscopic measurements. It was found that surface-functionalized MoS 2 nanosheets could be generated through Mo-N covalent bonds due to the orbital hybridization between the 5 s orbitals of Mo atoms and the 2p orbitals of N atoms of the solvent molecules. The high selectivity of the sensor is attributed to the coordination reaction between Cd 2+ and O donor atoms of DMF adsorbed on MoS 2 nanosheets. The robust anti-interference is ascribed to the strong binding energy of Cd 2+ and O atoms of DMF. Under the optimum conditions, the electrochemical sensor exhibits highly sensitive and selective assaying of Cd 2+ with a measured detection limit of 0.2 nM and a linear range from 2 nM to 20 μM.
ISSN: 0039-9140
DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2018.01.059
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