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Title: Development and trial of athletic T-shirt using spacer blocks to enhance ventilation
Authors: Ho, CP 
Fan, JT 
Newton, E 
Au, R 
Keywords: Design
Athletic T-shirt
Wearer trial
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited
Source: International journal of clothing science and technology, 2017, v. 29, no. 5, p. 706-715 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of clothing science and technology 
Abstract: Purpose - In previous studies, enlarging the air gap between fabric and the skin through the placement of spacer blocks has been proven to improve air ventilation, particularly when the pumping effect is activated during movement. These studies evaluated only the total thermal insulation (R-t) and moisture vapour resistance (R-et) by using a fabric thermal manikin. The purpose of this paper is to report the experience, perceived comfort level, and ventilation effect of two designed T-shirts in a wearer trial. Design/methodology/approach - An athletic T-shirt (Vented Design) was designed by attaching spacer blocks to the underside of the fabric to enlarge the air gap. Eight subjects participated in the wearer trial, which comprised 30 min treadmill running, followed by 10 min of rest. At different points during the 40 min test period, subjects rated their body coolness, skin dryness, and overall comfort of the designed T-shirt. The testing was repeated with participants wearing the same T-shirt but without spacer blocks, which served as a control garment. The mean skin temperature of each subject was also measured to support survey findings. Findings - The data were evaluated using independent t-tests. The T-shirt with spacer blocks provided higher ventilation than the control T-shirt after 10 min of running. Research limitations - because of limited resources, only eight subjects were recruited to this study. In addition, more T-shirt designs should be tested in the future to elucidate how T-shirt design affects ventilation performance. Originality/value - This study investigated a T-shirt design wherein the air gap between the skin surface and fabric was increased. The results of the wearer trial showed that this design could be adopted as a design brief for further design development of related clothing. This study has implications for clothing designers developing functional clothing with improved ventilation.
ISSN: 0955-6222
EISSN: 1758-5953
DOI: 10.1108/IJCST-11-2016-0125
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