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Title: Novel thiosemicarbazones inhibit lysine-rich carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) coisolated (LYRIC) and the LYRIC-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition via upregulation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1)
Authors: Xi, RX
Pun, IHY 
Menezes, SV
Fouani, L
Kalinowski, DS
Huang, MLH
Zhang, XZ
Richardson, DR
Kovacevic, Z
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Source: Molecular pharmacology, 2017, v. 91, no. 5, p. 499-517 How to cite?
Journal: Molecular pharmacology 
Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor a (TNF alpha) plays a vital role in cancer progression as it is associated with inflammation and promotion of cancer angiogenesis and metastasis. The effects of TNFa are mediated by its downstream target, the oncogene lysine-rich CEACAM1 coisolated protein (LYRIC, also known as metadherin or astrocyte elevated gene-1). LYRIC plays an important role in activating the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) signaling pathway, which controls multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, etc. In contrast, the metastasis suppressor N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) has the opposite effect on the NF-kB pathway, being able to inhibit NF-kB activation and reduce angiogenesis, proliferation, migration, and cancer cell invasion. These potent anticancer properties make NDRG1 an ideal therapeutic target. Indeed, a novel class of thiosemicarbazone anticancer agents that target this molecule has been developed; the lead agent, di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, has recently entered clinical trials for advanced and resistant cancers. To further elucidate the interaction between NDRG1 and oncogenic signaling, this study for the first time assessed the effects of NDRG1 on the tumorigenic properties of TNFa and its downstream target, LYRIC. We have demonstrated that NDRG1 inhibits the TNF alpha-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Further, NDRG1 also potently inhibited LYRIC expression, with a negative feedback loop existing between these two molecules. Examining the mechanism involved, we demonstrated that NDRG1 inhibited phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT signaling, leading to reduced levels of the LYRIC transcriptional activator, c-Myc. Finally, we demonstrated that novel thiosemicarbazones that upregulate NDRG1 also inhibit LYRIC expression, further highlighting their marked potential for cancer treatment.
ISSN: 0026-895X
EISSN: 1521-0111
DOI: 10.1124/mol.116.107870
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