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Title: Characterizations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vehicular emissions at roadside environment : the first comprehensive study in Northwestern China
Authors: Li, BW
Xue, YG
Huang, Y
Wang, LQ
Cheng, Y
Dai, WT
Zhong, HB
Cao, JJ
Lee, SC 
Keywords: VOCs
Ozone precursors
Vehicular emissions
Source apportionment
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Atmospheric environment, 2017, v. 161, p. 1-12 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric environment 
Abstract: Vehicular emission (VE) is one of the important anthropogenic sources for ground-level volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both urban and suburban areas. A first comprehensive campaign was conducted at an urban roadside in Xi'an, China in summer, 2016. A total of 57 VOCs, as known as critical surface ozone (03) precursors, and other trace gases were measured simultaneously during the sampling period. Isopentane, a tracer of gasoline evaporation, was the most abundant VOC in the roadside samples, followed by isobutane and benzene, attributed to the largest composition (similar to 70%) of gasoline-fueled vehicles on the road. The molar ratio of toluene/benzene (T/B) in our study (0.36) is far lower than the range reported in other cities, indicating the stronger contributions from diesel emissions. The results of source apportionment achieved with positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model were highly consistent with the vehicles compositions, strongly evidenced that the precise characterization of the VE sources from those marker species. The degrees of individual compound contributed to 03 production were weighed by ozone formation potential (OFP). Propylene (20%), 1-butene (11%) and iso-pentane(10%) were the top three contributors at the roadside. The information of this study complements the VOCs database regarding to the VE sources in Northwestern China.
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844
DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.04.029
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