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Title: Incidence and risk factors of acute akathisia in 493 individuals with first episode non-affective psychosis : a 6-week randomised study of antipsychotic treatment
Authors: Juncal-Ruiz, M
Ramirez-Bonilla, M
Gomez-Arnau, J
de la Foz, VOG
Suarez-Pinilla, P
Martinez-Garcia, O
Neergaard, K 
Tabares-Seisdedos, R
Crespo-Facorro, B
Keywords: Schizophrenia
Side effect
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Springer
Source: Psychopharmacology, 2017, v. 234, no. 17, p. 2563-2570 How to cite?
Journal: Psychopharmacology 
Abstract: Acute akathisia is a neuropsychiatric syndrome with a negative effect on illness outcome. Its incidence in patients treated with antipsychotics has shown to be highly variable across studies. Our goals were to investigate prevalence, risk factors for the development of acute akathisia, and differences in incidence between antipsychotics in a sample of 493 first episode non-affective psychosis patients. This is a pooled analysis of three prospective, randomized, flexible-dose, and open-label clinical trials. Patients were randomized assigned to different arms of treatment (haloperidol, quetiapine, olanzapine, ziprasidone, risperidone, or aripiprazole). Akathisia was determined using the Barnes Akathisia Scale at 6 weeks after antipsychotic initialization. Univariate analyses were performed to identify demographic, biochemical, substance use, clinical, and treatment-related predictors of acute akathisia. Considering these results, a predictive model based of a subsample of 132 patients was constructed with akathisia as the dependent variable. The overall incidence of akathisia was 19.5%. No differences in demographic, biochemical, substance use, and clinical variables were found. Significant incidence differences between antipsychotics were observed (I (2) = 68.21, p = 0.000): haloperidol (57%), risperidone (20%), aripiprazole (18.2%), ziprasidone (17.2%), olanzapine (3.6%), and quetiapine (3.5%). The predictive model showed that the type of antipsychotic (OR = 21.3, p = 0.000), need for hospitalization (OR = 2.6, p = 0.05), and BPRS total score at baseline (OR = 1.05, p = 0.03) may help to predict akathisia emergence. Among second generation antipsychotics, only olanzapine and quetiapine should be considered as akathisia-sparing drugs. The type of antipsychotic, having been hospitalized, and a more severe symptomatology at intake seem to predict the development of acute akathisia.
ISSN: 0033-3158
EISSN: 1432-2072
DOI: 10.1007/s00213-017-4646-1
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