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Title: Valorization of starchy, cellulosic, and sugary food waste into hydroxymethylfurfural by one-pot catalysis
Authors: Yu, IKM 
Tsang, DCW 
Yip, ACK
Chen, SS 
Ok, YS
Poon, CS 
Keywords: Biomass conversion
Food waste
Metal catalysts
Waste valorization
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Chemosphere, 2017, v. 184, p. 1099-1107 How to cite?
Journal: Chemosphere 
Abstract: This study aimed to produce a high-value platform chemical, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), from food waste and evaluate the catalytic performance of trivalent and tetravalent metals such as AlCl3, CrCl3, FeCl3, Zr(O)Cl-2, and SnCl4 for one-pot conversion. Starchy food waste, e.g., cooked rice and penne produced 4.0-8.1 wt% HMF and 46.0-64.8 wt% glucose over SnCl4 after microwave heating at 140 degrees C for 20 min. This indicated that starch hydrolysis was effectively catalyzed but subsequent glucose isomerization was rate-limited during food waste valorization, which could be enhanced by 40-min reaction to achieve 22.7 wt% HMF from cooked rice. Sugary food waste, e.g., kiwifruit and watermelon, yielded up to 13 wt% HMF over Sn catalyst, which mainly resulted from naturally present fructose. Yet, organic acids in fruits may hinder Fe-catalyzed dehydration by competing for the Lewis sites. In contrast, conversion of raw mixed vegetables as cellulosic food waste was limited by marginal hydrolysis at the studied conditions (120-160 degrees C and 20-40 min). It is interesting to note that tetravalent metals enabled HMF production at a lower temperature and shorter time, while trivalent metals could achieve a higher HMF selectivity at an elevated temperature. Further studies on kinetics, thermodynamics, and reaction pathways of food waste valorization are recommended.
ISSN: 0045-6535
EISSN: 1879-1298
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.06.095
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