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Title: Characterization and health risk assessment of PM2.5-bound organics inside and outside of Chinese smoking lounges
Authors: Li, LJ
Chow, JC
Watson, JG
Lee, FSC 
Cui, L 
Gao, Y
Dai, WT
Ho, KF
Huang, Y
Cao, JJ
Keywords: Environmental tobacco smoke
Indoor public places
Smoking-free policy
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Chemosphere, 2017, v. 186, p. 438-445 How to cite?
Journal: Chemosphere 
Abstract: PM2.5 samples were collected at six indoor public places that contained dedicated smoking lounges. Samples were taken in the smoking lounges, at two indoor locations outside of the lounges, and in outdoor air near the venues. Organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and non-polar organic compounds including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), n-alkanes (n-C-16 to n-C-40), iso/ianteiso-alkanes (C-29 to C-33), hopanes and phthalate esters (PAEs) were quantified. Average PM2.5 levels of 170.2 +/- 85.9 mu g/m(3) in the lounges exceeded limits of 25 mu g/m(3) set by World Health Organization (WHO); these levels were 5.4 and 3.9 times higher than those indoors and outdoors, respectively. High ratios of OC to PM2.5, OC to EC, and PAHs diagnostic ratios in the lounges indicated contributions from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The maximum carbon number (C-max) and carbon preference indices (CPI) for n-alkanes showed ETS transport from the enclosed lounges to nearby indoor non-smoking areas. Iso/anteiso-alkanes in the lounges were 876.5 ng/m(3), similar to 80 times higher than outdoor levels. 17 alpha(H)-21 beta(H),30-norhopane and 17 alpha(H)-21 beta(H),(22R)-homohopane were much higher in the lounges than outdoor air, but they cannot be directly attributed to ETS. Estimated carcinogenic risks of PAHs in the lounges exceeded the acceptable level of 10(-6).
ISSN: 0045-6535
EISSN: 1879-1298
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.006
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