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Title: The impact of a co-payment on the cost- effectiveness of screening for diabetic retinopathy
Authors: Lian, JX
McGhee, SM
Gangwani, RA
Chan, CKW
Lam, CLK
Yap, MKH 
Wong, DSH
Keywords: Cost-effectiveness
Eye disorders
Health services
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Oxford University Press
Source: Journal of public health, 2016, v. 38, no. 4, p. 782-792 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of public health 
Abstract: Background To determine the impact of a co-payment on the cost-effectiveness of systematic screening for diabetic retinopathy in Hong Kong (HK). Methods An analysis was conducted from provider and societal perspectives. A Markov cohort model was used to determine the costeffectiveness of screening with a co-payment of HK$ 60 (US$ 7.7) compared with free screening, with and without an assumption that the inverse care law (ICL) would operate in the presence of a fee as seen in our previous data. Results From the provider perspective, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of free versus pay systematic screening was HK$ 166 558 (US$ 21 354)/extra quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained assuming an effect of the ICL and free screening was always more cost-effective than pay screening when willingness to pay for a QALY was HK$ 124 488 (US$ 15 960) or above. Without an effect of the ICL, the ICER was HK$ 480 479 (US$ 61 600)/extra QALY gained. From the societal perspective, the ICER was HK$ 144 046 (US$ 18 467)/extra QALY gained with an effect of the ICL and HK$ 199 741 (US$ 25 608)/extra QALY gained with no effect. Conclusions Free systematic screening was highly cost-effective from the societal perspective compared with screening with a small co-payment irrespective of the effects of the ICL. From the provider perspective, free screening was highly cost-effective if the ICL operates.
ISSN: 1741-3842
EISSN: 1741-3850
DOI: 10.1093/pubmed/fdv168
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