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Title: A direct load control strategy of centralized air-conditioning systems for building fast demand response to urgent requests of smart grids
Authors: Tang, R 
Wang, S 
Yan, C 
Keywords: Direct load control
Fast demand response
Peak demand limiting
Smart grid
Supply-based feedback control
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Source: Automation in construction, 2018, v. 87, p. 74-83 How to cite?
Journal: Automation in construction 
Abstract: When receiving an urgent request from a smart grid, shutting down part of operating chillers directly in the air-conditioning system in a building can achieve immediate power reduction. However, no study has addressed how to determine the number of chillers/pumps to be shut down and how to regulate the load of retained equipment systematically during DR events. This paper presents a new approach to address these issues based on three schemes. A power demand optimization scheme predicts the building cooling demand and the power limiting threshold in response to a received DR request. A system sequence control resetting scheme determines the number of operating chillers/pumps to be retained. An online control/regulation scheme ensures the system power following the expected profile by regulating the total chilled water flow delivered to the building and therefore the chiller load. It also employs a cooling distributor to distribute chilled water to individual zones concerning different sensitivities/sacrifices to temperature increases. Case studies are conducted on a simulated dynamic building air-conditioning system. Results show that, during DR events, the proposed strategy can achieve the expected power reduction (i.e., about 23%) and also maintain acceptable zone temperature even though uncertainties exist in the prediction process.
ISSN: 0926-5805
EISSN: 1872-7891
DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2017.12.012
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