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Title: Modelling nonlinearity of guided ultrasonic waves in fatigued materials using a nonlinear local interaction simulation approach and a spring model
Authors: Radecki, R 
Su, Z 
Cheng, L 
Packo, P
Staszewski, WJ
Keywords: Fatigue crack
Lamb waves
Nonlinear Local Interaction Simulation Approach (NL-LISA)
Nonlinear material
Nonlinearity of guided waves
Spring Model (SM)
Wave propagation
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Source: Ultrasonics, 2018, v. 84, p. 272-289 How to cite?
Journal: Ultrasonics 
Abstract: Modelling and numerical simulation – based on the framework of the Local Interaction Simulation Approach – was developed to have more insight into nonlinear attributes of guided ultrasonic waves propagating in fatigued metallic materials. Various sources of nonlinearity were considered in this modelling work, with particular emphases on higher-order harmonic generation and accumulation of nonlinearity along wave propagation. The material hyper-elasticity was considered in the model using an energy density approach based on the Landau–Lifshitz formulation; and the “breathing” motion pattern of a fatigue crack in the material was interrogated using a spring model. Upon the successful validation with the model prepared in the commercial software based on the Finite Element Methods, two scenarios were comparatively investigated, i.e. the lower and higher frequency regime. In the first case propagation of a basic symmetric mode pair was simulated using the model to observe a cumulative characteristic of the second harmonic mode with nonlinear hyper-elastic material definition upon appropriate selection of excitation frequency. In the second case, the higher-order symmetric mode pair was excited according to the “internal resonance” conditions, revealing a strong dependence of manifested nonlinearity on numerical parameters. Moreover, it was shown that with the use of the wave from the low frequency regime it was easier to differentiate later stages of the crack development, being in contrary to waves in the high frequency regime, which allowed to clearly observe early stages of the crack expansion. Such outcome lays the foundation to develop the damage detection and monitoring scheme in the field of Structural Health Monitoring based on utilising the nonlinear features of guided ultrasonic waves.
ISSN: 0041-624X
EISSN: 1874-9968
DOI: 10.1016/j.ultras.2017.11.008
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