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Title: Elucidating the urban levels, sources and health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Pakistan : implications for changing energy demand
Authors: Hamid, N
Syed, JH 
Junaid, M
Mahmood, A
Li, J
Zhang, G
Malik, RN
Keywords: Air/dust
Energy challenges
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Risk assessment
Source apportionment models
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Source: Science of the total environment, 2018, v. 619-620, p. 165-175 How to cite?
Journal: Science of the total environment 
Abstract: Due to the severe fuel crisis in terms of natural gas, a paradigm shift in fuel combustion (diesel, gasoline, and biomass) may increase the atmospheric emissions and associated health risks in Pakistan. Present study was aimed to investigate the concentration of fugitive PAHs in the environment (outdoor and indoor settings), associated probabilistic health risk assessment in the exposed population, and possible linkage between fuel consumption patterns and PAHs emissions in twin cities (Rawalpindi and Islamabad) of Pakistan. Results showed that the mean PAHs concentrations (air: 2390 pg m− 3; dust: 167 ng g− 1) in the indoor environment were higher than that of the outdoor environment (air: 2132 pg m− 3; dust: 90.0 ng g− 1). Further, the source apportionment PCA-MLR receptor model identified diesel and gasoline combustion as the primary PAHs sources in the urban and sub-urban settings. Estimated life cancer risk (LCR) potential via inhalation to indoor PAHs was higher with a probability of 2.0 cases per 10,000 inhabitants as compared to outdoor exposure. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) model from exposure to dust bound PAHs showed risk in the order of ingestion > dermal > inhalation for various exposure pathways. Likewise, estimated daily intake (EDI) model reflects that PAHs in surface dust enter into the human body mainly through the respiratory system because EDI for breathing was reported higher than that of oral intake. Therefore, adoption of sustainable fuels is recommended to meet the energy requirements and to reduce PAHs emissions and related health risks in the twin cities of Pakistan.
ISSN: 0048-9697
EISSN: 1879-1026
DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.080
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