Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/74689
Title: Valorization of lignocellulosic fibres of paper waste into levulinic acid using solid and aqueous BrØnsted acid
Authors: Chen, SS 
Wang, L 
Yu, IKM 
Tsang, DCW 
Hunt, AJ
Jérôme, F
Zhang, S
Ok, YS 
Poon, CS 
Keywords: Biorefinery
Brønsted acid
Cellulose
Levulinic acid
Waste valorization
Issue Date: 2018
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Bioresource technology, 2018, v. 247, p. 387-394 How to cite?
Journal: Bioresource technology 
Abstract: This study aims to produce levulinic acid (LA) from paper towel waste in environment-friendly and economically feasible conditions, and evaluate the difference using solid and aqueous Brønsted acids. Direct dehydration of glucose to LA required sufficiently strong Brønsted acidity, where Amberlyst 36 demonstrated rapid production of approximately 30 C mol% of LA in 20 min. However, the maximum yield of LA was limited by mass transfer. In contrast, the yield of LA gradually increased to over 40 C mol% in 1 M H2SO4 at 150 °C in 60 min. The SEM images revealed the conversion in dilute acids under microwave at 150 °C resulting in swelling structures of cellulose, which were similar to the pre-treatment process with concentrated acids. Further increase in reaction temperature to 200 °C significantly shortened the reaction time from 60 to 2.5 min, which saved the energy cost as revealed in preliminary cost analysis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/74689
ISSN: 0960-8524
EISSN: 1873-2976
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2017.09.110
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