Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/7402
Title: 香港巴基斯坦裔中學生學習漢語「上」、「下」方位詞、空間概念和趨向補語的狀況 : 偏誤分析及對應教學策略的成效 = Learning of "Shang, Xia" as nouns of locality, spatial concept and directional complement by the Pakistani secondary students in Hong Kong : error analysis and effectiveness of correspondent teaching strategies
Authors: Chan, Mei Ching Daphne (陳美晶)
Keywords: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Chinese language -- Study and teachnig (Secondary) -- China -- Hong Kong
Chinese language -- Study and teaching -- Foreign speakers
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 這次研究於二零零七年開展,對象是香港一所中學(地利亞修女紀念學校(協和))的中一至中五巴基斯坦學生,他們的第一語言是烏爾都語,學習中文作為第二語言,上中文課的教學語言是廣東話。選取巴基斯坦學生作為研究對象,是由於根據香港統計處二零一一年「人口普查主題性報告:少數族裔人士」統計報告顯示,全港 7 071 576人口中,共有 451 183名少數族裔人士居住在香港。少數族裔人士當中,非華裔亞洲人佔 81.0%,巴基斯坦籍人有 18 042人(4%),僅次於印尼、菲律賓及印度人。按統計把數據與二零零一年和二零零六年比較,香港巴基斯坦裔適齡學童逐年持續增長,由二零零一年的 1050人,升至二零零六年的 1145人及二零一一年的 2391人,但能夠應用漢語的適齡巴籍學童卻相當少,僅得 5.5%。這情況跟筆者任教的香港非華語小學、中學極為吻合。同時,相比其他南亞裔學生,巴基斯坦學生較難掌握漢語的原因,除了受母語烏爾都語、第二語言英語或孟加拉語的影響外,漢語的詞類包含多種功能、詞彙的複合結構繁多、語序和語法的差異等,亦令他們容易產生混淆,出現顯性和隱性的偏誤。母語與目標語有差別時,便會出現「負遷移」,負遷移多為消極的,消極的遷移會導致語言錯亂和學習困難的產生,阻礙新知識的學習。以漢語「上」、「下」為例,它們廣泛地分佈在方位詞、趨向動詞和一般動詞裏,使用頻率非常高,但應用和引申義卻相當複雜。對巴基斯坦學生而言,絶對是一個漢語習得的難點。因此,筆者嘗試整理和歸納研究對象在第二語言習得過程中所遇到的困難以及所出現的錯誤,識別他們的學習難點和教學的重點,並透過重點講解和練習,幫助他們克服學習困難,期望把負遷移的影響減到最低。為此,本研究將以語義認知的角度為基礎,透過偏誤分析,剖析 60名香港巴基斯坦裔中學生習得漢語「上」、「下」方位詞、空間概念和趨向補語的偏誤,歸納他們習得漢語的難點,從而找出對應的對外漢語教學策略。
在識別和診斷研究對象的學習難點和偏誤過程中,筆者歸納出香港巴基斯坦裔中學生較容易習得漢語「上」、「下」空間概念中非三維「(表)面」的概念和單純趨向動詞「 v + 上」、「v +下」的具體意義;他們較難習得漢語「上」、「下」空間概念中的「位移」概念和趨向形容詞。偏誤的出現,除了跟母語負遷移和目的語負遷移等語言因素有關外,心理和社會的因素也是他們習得漢語「上」、「下」受到干擾的原因。要減少學生的偏誤,不能光靠老師講解,學生多讀多抄寫便可解決,必須通過有效的教學方法,系統地把偏誤診斷、分類出來,加以適切的引導和反複跟進,才可加深學生對漢語語法的認識。就是次漢語「上」、「下」偏誤分析的研究顯示,60位中一至中五的香港巴基斯坦裔學生在各級的漢語學習能力分野雖然大,透過「圖表分析和理解」和「對立不對稱現象分析」學習策略,學生對處理三維空間「面(積)」、「體」的概念和複合趨向補語「上來、上去、下來、下去」均有所改善,能加強「系統形成前階段」中中級程度和基礎程度的研究對象學習和理解,對對外漢語教學教育工作者縮窄他們的學習個別差異也很有幫助。另外,研究對象較多運用簡化策略來學習漢語,較少運用回避策略。他們認為,在多年學習漢語後,覺得母語烏爾都語跟漢語在語法上的差異很大。他們學習漢語,句子中如有自己懂得的字詞,會先把句子簡化,再猜測句意。從前測和後測的觀察,研究對象較少用回避策略。採用回避策略的研究對象多屬程度偏低的一類。在布置對應教學策略的過程中,筆者透過漢語「上、下」方位詞習得順序教學、主體和客體圖象解說、反向詞「對立不對稱現象分析」策略等方法,使學生有系統地學習漢語對「上」、「下」的概念。在空間概念方面,筆者運用圖表,著學生找出句子中的參照點,引導學生多繪畫箭咀、水平或垂直線,幫助他們感受和理解句中物件的擺放位置和位移狀態;在趨向補語概念方面,筆者運用反向詞「有無標記」,讓學生有系統地學習相反詞與「上」、「下」的搭配。結果顯示,這些對應教學策略能對減少學生學習漢語「上」、「下」出現偏誤,也能逐步解決他們對漢語「上」、「下」方位詞、空間概念、趨向補語的學習難點,對提升他們漢語閱讀和理解能力也有幫助。
This research was conducted in 2007, with participation of 60 Pakistani students studying at a local secondary school in Hong Kong. They all came from Delia Memorial School (Hip Wo), with over 6 years of Chinese learning experience. Their mother tongue was Urdu, and had been learning Chinese as a second language. Cantonese was used as the medium of instruction in their Chinese classes. According to the statistics of 2011 Population Census Thematic Report: Ethnic Minorities, a total of 451 183 ethnic minorities, constituting 6.4% of the whole population, were living in Hong Kong by 2011. Among the ethnic minorities, 81% were non-Chinese Asians. The number of Pakistanis (18 041 or 4%) was only second to that of the Indonesians, Filipinos and Indians who are mainly domestic helpers. In terms of school attendees, the number of Pakistani students increased rapidly over the past decade, from 1 050 in 2001 to 1 154 in 2006 and 2391 in 2011. However, the proportion of Pakistani students using Chinese as their usual language remained low (5.5%). Such scenario was in line with the observation of the researcher who had been teaching non-Chinese-speaking (NCS) students at both primary and secondary levels in the past years. Pakistani students face a lot of difficulties in learning Chinese. On the one hand, they had difficulty mastering the sentence order, the multi-functional word classes, and the complicated morpho-syntactic structure of Chinese. On the other hand, their Chinese learning processes were constantly affected by their knowledge of Urdu, English and Bengali. Negative transfer often took place when there were differences between their mother language and Chinese, resulting in language errors and communication difficulties. For example, the commonly used words "shang, xia", though considered to be rather simple by native speakers, were often misused by these NCS students, since they are quite complicated in terms of meaning and usage - both have variations in meaning and asymmetrical pattern of usage. They are nouns of locality, spatial nouns, verbs and directional complements at the same time. This research therefore attempts to approach the teaching of this set of common words to NCS students by focusing on their usages and meanings. Based on the result of error analysis of the students' works, this research also tries to examine and reveal the acquisition of these two sets of Chinese words in their various forms b the Pakistani secondary students in Hong Kong, so as to identify the reasons accounting for the students' errors in using these words. Subsequent teaching approaches and learning strategies for tackling such learning difficulties can hopefully be proposed.
It was found by this research that Hong Kong Pakistani secondary school students managed to master "shang" and "xia" comparatively well when they are used as non-three-dimensional spatial concept and pure directional verbs in the form of “v + Shan / v + xia”. However, they made errors when the two terms were used to represent concept of movement and directional complement. They made such errors not only because of negative transfer of the rules of their mother language to the target language, but also because of psychological and social factors. This research also finds out that teacher-centered methodology and mechanical drilling are ineffective ways of reducing negative transfer in learning Chinese grammar. A systematic approach to the diagnosis and classification of errors made by the students, followed by adoption of innovative teaching methods and appropriate guidance focusing on different weaknesses of the students are proved to be much more effective. According to this research, even though student capability varied quite substantially, the use of diagrams and opposite analysis were effective means of helping the students in grasping the tree-dimensional spatial concept as represented by the words "shan" and "xia", and concept of directional complement as represented by “shang lai”, “shang qu”, “xi alai” and “xia qu”. Subjects who were at the beginner and intermediate level seem to benefit most form the strategies of using diagrams and opposite analysis in the teaching of the above concepts. It is believed that such methods could be used by Chinese L2 teachers in reducing the negative impact of learner diversity. It was also found that simplification was the most common learning strategy adopted by these NCS students when learning and comprehending Chinese; whereas avoidance was al less used strategy. The students considered the differences between Urdu and Chinese rather big. They world try to minimize the negative impact brought by such huge difference by identifying words that they know in a sentence, then simplify the sentence with the help of the known word(s), and guess the sentence meaning based on the simplified version. Only those with relatively low standard in Chinese would chose to ignore and avoid the sentences. In the post-analysis teaching process, the researcher adopted a number of different approaches in teaching the various meanings and usages of “shang” and “xia”. They include explanation of the meanings of “shang” and “xia” in sequential order, diagram illustration, and opposite analysis. Points of reference, dimension illustrations were also used to help students in allocating objects in terms of spatial concepts as represented by “shang” and “xia”. When teaching the concept of directional complement, the notion of “marked” and “unmarked” directional terms as collocated with “shang” and “xia” was used to help students understand the concept. The result shows that such measures are effective in reducing the number of errors and enhancing their ability in the use of multi-functional words with diversified meanings such as “shang” and “xia”
Description: xvi, 357 pages : illustrations ; 30 cm
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P CBS 2013 Chan
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/7402
Rights: All rights reserved.
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