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Title: "实在"类情态副词的句法语义研究 = The Syntax and semantics of Shizai-type modality adverbs
Authors: Wang, Hong (王宏)
Keywords: Hong Kong Polytechnic University -- Dissertations
Chinese language -- Adverb
Issue Date: 2013
Publisher: The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Abstract: 汉语中的情态副词一般认为具有语义虚空抽象的特点,只可意会,不可言传,通常说它们是表达说话人的某种情绪或态度。然而情绪或态度并不能看做是词语本身的语义,而是由语义派生的,词语深层的语义还有待揭示。同时当前的词典及工具书中的释义也只适用于母语使用者,而对外国人而言,这些释义都不够清晰,往往会误导他们。这些都使情态副词在对外汉语教学中无论对教师还是对学习者来说都成了难点问题。本文针对这一问题,以解决对外汉语教学中的问题,帮助教师和学生更好地理解这些词为目的,运用现代语言学的分析论证法研究了 "简直、实在、根本"等几个教学中常见的难点词语,对它们进行了深入细致的语义分析,挖掘并论证了其深层的语义并解释了这些词一些与语义有关的句法表现。最后,我们还将它们与其它相近的词语进行比较,揭示其最本质的区别。希望我们的研究能对这些词的对外汉语教学及词典编撰有所帮助,同时也能对国内的情态副词的研究在方法上有一个推动作用。我们的结论是:"简直"所在命题表示事物的某个性状程度的主观极值态,而 "简直" 表示极度接近该极值态。因此 "简直" 所在命题的谓语必须具有可分级 (gradable)和极值的特性。"几乎" 与 "简直" 的区别在于三点:主客观的不同,性质的不同,接近对象的不同。"实在" 所在命题表示事物性状所达到的某种程度,而 "实在" 表示达到该程度的标准值,其功能在于取消了一般交际中默认的水分,增加其量值。因此 "实在" 所在命题的谓语也具有静态、可分级的特点,但它可以是量标上的任意一点。"的确" 与它的区别在于 "的确" 句是有预设的,是对预设表达的情况的确认。因此 "的确" 对命题没有选择要求。"根本" 表示当前命题与预设或背景中另一命题之间完全对立的关系,因此具有触发预设的功能。可分为两种:一、表明新命题与预设之间的对立,因此有否定预设的功能。二、表明当前命题与对比命题之间的对立。"根本" 与 "并(不)"的区别在于:一 "根本" 表示的是两个命题之间的对立,其背景命题可以不是预设中的而是上下文中的,而 "并(不)"是对预设的否定;二 "根本表示的是完全的对立或相反,用于否定时是完全的否定,而 "并(不)" 可以是完全的否定也可以是部分的否定。"偏偏" 的语义可以归结为一个,即表示事实与预设的偏离,只是因为预设的不同而产生了不同的解读。因预设与事实有个对比,所以就产生了焦点,"偏偏" 具有对焦点敏感的特性,因此可视为焦点敏感算子。
Modality adverbs in Mandarin are usually thought to be a kind of empty words with abstract,subtle meaning and very hard to express in words. They are often described as words indicating certain emotion or attitude of the speakers. But emotion and attitude are derived and secondary, and cannot be regarded as words’ meaning. Meanwhile, such interpretations in dictionaries or reference books, may look clear and appropriate for Chinese native speakers, are always ambiguous and misleading for foreign students. It makes modality adverbs a big trouble in Teaching Chinese as a L2 both for teachers and for foreign students. This work, aiming to resolve some problems in Teaching Chinese as a L2 and to help the teachers and foreign students have a better understanding on these words, chooses some common but difficult modality adverbs in teaching like jianzhi, shizai, genben and pianpian and gives detailed semantic and syntactic analysis. I refine and demonstrate their underlying essential meanings, and try to account for some of their syntactic behavior related with semantics. Then I compare them with words have similar meaning or function, reveal their basic difference. I argue that: The propositions in which jianzhi exists express a subjectively extreme state of certain property or situation and jianzhi indicates approaching the extreme point of particular property or state of the subject. So the predicates of the propositions must be gradable and at the extreme point consequently. The differences between jianzhi and jihu lie in three aspects, i.e. the difference of subjectivity and objectivity, the difference of their nature, the difference of the objects they approaching. The propositions that shizai exists in indicate a state of the subject or the degree of a state and shizai indicates 100% reaching the standard value of that state or degree and it function as cancelling the discount in people’s statement and increasing the value. So the predicates of shizai sentence are also stative and gradable, but it can be at any point in the scale. dique is distinguished from shizai mainly in the existing of presupposition or not. Dique is used to confirm the condition that a presupposition states. So there is no semantic selection limitation with its proposition. Genben indicates the proposition it exists in is completely opposite to another one. There are two cases: one is that Genben indicates the opposition of the present proposition and presupposition and so can be used to deny a presupposition; another indicates the opposition of the present position and a contrast one existing in the context. The difference between genben and bing(bu) lies in two: genben indicates the complete opposition between two propositions, and the background proposition can exist in context but not a presupposition. While bing(bu) only used to deny a presupposition and can partially deny. Pianpian’s three meanings can be united into one, i.e. indicating the departure of the real situation from presupposition. The different reading is due to the difference of the presupposition. And the contrast between two propositions results a comparing focus. Pianpian is sensitive to the focus and should be regarded as a focus-sensitive operator.
Description: 128 pages ; 30 cm
PolyU Library Call No.: [THS] LG51 .H577P CBS 2013 WangH
Rights: All rights reserved.
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