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Title: Zero-valent iron for the abatement of arsenate and selenate from flowback water of hydraulic fracturing
Authors: Sun, YQ
Chen, SS
Tsang, DCW 
Graham, NJD
Ok, YS
Feng, YJ
Li, XD 
Keywords: Zero-valent iron
Hydraulic fracturing
Ionic strength
Permeable reactive barrier
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Chemosphere, Jan. 2017, v. 167, p. 163-170 How to cite?
Journal: Chemosphere 
Abstract: Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was tested for the removal of 150 mu g L-1 As(V) and 350 mu g L-1 Se(VI) in high salinity (ionic strength 0.35-4.10 M) flowback water of hydraulic fracturing. Over 90% As(V) and Se(VI) was removed by 2.5 g L-1 ZVI in Day-14 flowback water up to 96-h reaction, with the remaining concentration below the maximum contaminant level for As(V) and criterion continuous concentration for Se(VI) recommended by US EPA. The kinetics of As(V) and Se(VI) removal followed a pseudo-second order rate expression with the observed rates of 4.51 x 10(-2)-4.91 x 10(-1) and 3.48 x 10(-2)-6.58 x 10(-1) h(-1) (with 0.5-10 g L-1 ZVI), respectively. The results showed that Se(VI) removal significantly decreased with increasing ionic strength, while As(V) removal showed little variation. Common competing anions (nitrate, bicarbonate, silicate, and phosphate), present in shallow groundwater and stormwater, caused marginal Se(VI) desorption (2.42 +/- 0.13%) and undetectable As(V) desorption from ZVI. The competition between As(V) and Se(VI) for ZVI removal depended on the initial molar ratio and surface sites, which occurred when the Se(VI) concentration was higher than the As(V) concentration in this study. The characterization of As(V)- and Se(VI)-loaded ZVI by X-ray diffraction and Raman analysis revealed that ZVI gradually converted to magnetite/maghemite corrosion products with lepidocrocite in flowback water over 30 days. Similar corrosion compositions were confirmed in, aerobic and anaerobic conditions regardless of the molar ratio of As(V) to Se(VI). The high reactivity and stability of ZVI showed its suitability for in-situ prevention of As(V) and Se(VI) migration due to accidental leakage, spillage, or overflow of flowback water.
ISSN: 0045-6535
EISSN: 1879-1298
DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.09.120
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