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Title: Reconciling unsatisfying tourism experiences : message type effectiveness and the role of counterfactual thinking
Authors: Wang, S
Kirillova, K 
Lehto, X
Keywords: Counterfactual thinking
Destination marketing
Message appeal
Message authorship
Message effectiveness
Post-purchase evaluation
Post-trip experience
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Tourism management, 2017, v. 60, p. 233-243 How to cite?
Journal: Tourism management 
Abstract: While attracting new tourists is an important issue in destination marketing, it is also imperative to manage tourists' experience post-trip, particularly in cases of unsatisfying experiences. Yet, the questions of how to rectify unsatisfying tourism experiences received little attention in tourism scholarship. In the present research, we investigated the effectiveness of different forms of marketing messages and the role of counterfactual thinking in the ability of a marketing message to improve tourists' attitudes towards the destination and intentions to recommend, when a tourism experience was not up to tourists' satisfaction. A scenario-based experiment was conducted with 480 respondents. The results showed that user-generated messages and the messages employing emotional appeal were more impactful than destination-generated or rational messages. Respondents who engaged in downward counterfactual thinking, that is imagining the situation in which their experience could have been worse, was shown to have a greater positive effect on unsatisfied tourists.
ISSN: 0261-5177
EISSN: 1879-3193
DOI: 10.1016/j.tourman.2016.12.008
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

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