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Title: Structure, molecular conformation, and immunomodulatory activity of four polysaccharide fractions from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia
Authors: Hu, T
Huang, Q
Wong, K 
Yang, H
Keywords: Immunomodulatory activity
Molecular conformation
Polysaccharides from lignosus rhinocerotis
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: International journal of biological macromolecules, 2017, v. 94, p. 423-430 How to cite?
Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules 
Abstract: Four polysaccharide fractions, LRP-1, LRP-2, LRP-3 and LRP-4 were extracted stepwise from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia with distilled water at 25, 95, 120 °C and 1.0 M NaOH solution at 4 °C. Their structure, molecular size and chain conformation were clarified using SEC-MALLS-RI, GC, FT-IR and UV–vis. Furthermore, their immunomodulatory activities were evaluated by the model of cyclophosphamide (Cy)-induced immunosuppression. The LRP-1 and LRP-2 were polysaccharide-protein complexes (46–68% β-D-glucan and 27–48% protein), while LRP-3 and LRP-4 were absolutely composed of β-D-glucose. The LRP-4 with low polydispersity had much higher molecular weight (Mw, 5.86 × 106 g/mol) and intrinsic viscosity ([η], 202.6 ml/g) than other LRP fractions. Based on Mw, radius of gyration (<S2>z 1/2) and [η] data with the exponent β of <S2>z 1/2–Mw and its U-shaped curve, all four LRP fractions were highly branched macromolecules and LRP-3 showed a more compact sphere-like conformation than LRP-2 in aqueous solution. Additionally, all four LRP fractions exhibited protective effects against Cy-induced immunosuppression in mice by improving immune organs as well as stimulating the release of major cytokines TNF-α and INF-γ. This work provides a theoretical basis for the application of polysaccharides and their protein complexes from Lignosus rhinocerotis sclerotia in food- or drug-based therapies.
EISSN: 0141-8130
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2016.10.051
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