Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/64797
Title: The effect of a combined visual efficiency and perceptual motor training programme on the handwriting performance of children with handwriting difficulties : a pilot study
Authors: Leung, MMP
Lam, CSY 
Lam, SST
Pao, WY
Li-Tsang, CWP 
Keywords: Accommodation
Training
Visual efficiency
Perceptual-motor
Handwriting
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Optometric Extension Program Foundation
Source: Optometry & visual performance , 2016, v. 4, no. 2, p. 62-71 How to cite?
Journal: Optometry & visual performance 
Abstract: Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a combined visual efficiency and perceptual-motor training programme on the handwriting performance of Chinese children aged 6 to 9 years with handwriting difficulties (HWD).
Methods: Twenty-six children with HWD were assigned randomly and equally into two groups. The training programme was provided over eight consecutive weeks with one session per week. The perceptual-motor group received training only on perceptual-motor functions, including visual spatial relationship, visual sequential memory, visual constancy, visual closure, graphomotor control and grip control. The combined training group received additional training components on visual efficiency, including accommodation, ocular motility, and binocular fusion. Visual efficiency, visual perceptual skills, and Chinese handwriting performance were assessed before and after the training programme.
Results: The results showed statistically significant improvement in handwriting speed after the training in both groups. However, the combined training gave no additional benefit on improving handwriting speed (ANCOVA: F=0.43, p=0.52). In terms of visual efficiency, participants in the combined training group showed greater improvement in amplitude of accommodation measured with right eye (F=4.34, p<0.05), left eye (F=5.77, p<0.05) and both eyes (F=11.08, p<0.01).
Conclusions: Although the additional visual efficiency training did not provide further improvement in the handwriting speed of children with HWD, children showed improvement in their accommodation amplitude. As accommodative function is important for providing sustainable and clear near vision in the process of reading and word recognition for writing, the effect of the combined training on handwriting performance should be further investigated.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/64797
ISSN: 2325-3487 (print)
2325-3479 (online)
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Access
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

Page view(s)

227
Last Week
4
Last month
Checked on Sep 17, 2017

Google ScholarTM

Check



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.