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Title: Building a personalized, auto-calibrating eye tracker from user interactions
Authors: Huang, XM 
Kwok, TCK 
Ngai, G 
Chan, SCF 
Leong, HV 
Keywords: Gaze estimation
Implicit modeling
Data validation
Gaze-interaction correspondence
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: ACM Press
Source: Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI '16, San Jose, California, USA, May 07 - 12, 2016, p. 5169-5179 How to cite?
Abstract: We present PACE, a Personalized, Automatically Calibrating Eye-tracking system that identifies and collects data unobtrusively from user interaction events on standard computing systems without the need for specialized equipment. PACE relies on eye/facial analysis of webcam data based on a set of robust geometric gaze features and a two-layer data validation mechanism to identify good training samples from daily interaction data. The design of the system is founded on an in-depth investigation of the relationship between gaze patterns and interaction cues, and takes into consideration user preferences and habits. The result is an adaptive, data-driven approach that continuously recalibrates, adapts and improves with additional use. Quantitative evaluation on 31 subjects across different interaction behaviors shows that training instances identified by the PACE data collection have higher gaze point-interaction cue consistency than those identified by conventional approaches. An in-situ study using real-life tasks on a diverse set of interactive applications demonstrates that the PACE gaze estimation achieves an average error of 2.56º, which is comparable to state-of-the-art, but without the need for explicit training or calibration. This demonstrates the effectiveness of both the gaze estimation method and the corresponding data collection mechanism.
ISBN: 9781450333627 (print)
DOI: 10.1145/2858036.2858404
Rights: © 2016 ACM
The following publication Huang, M. X., Kwok, T. C., Ngai, G., Chan, S. C., & Leong, H. V. (2016, May). Building a personalized, auto-calibrating eye tracker from user interactions. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 5169-5179). New York: ACM is available at
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