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|Title:||毛澤東對明代歷史文化的吸收與應用||Authors:||Chak, CS||Keywords:||Mao Zedong
The Cultural Revolution
|Issue Date:||2012||Publisher:||中央研究院近代史研究所||Source:||近代史研究所集刊, 2012, no. 76, p. 1-40 How to cite?||Journal:||近代史研究所集刊||Abstract:||毛澤東對中國歷史文化的吸取和應用，當然不會僅僅侷限於有明一代。例如清朝曹雪芹的《紅樓夢》、曾國藩的文治武功，對毛思想都產生過重要的影響。要充分析論毛對中國歷史文化的吸取和應用這一課題，必須要有多篇論文甚至多本專書的合力。本文的範圍，只聚焦在毛澤東對明代歷史文化的吸取和應用這一基點上。由章學誠「六經皆史」的觀念啟發，本文不僅把一切由明人所撰寫和編纂過的文字，均視為明代的史料，而且還把一切由清朝和近現代人所撰寫和編纂的關於明朝的文字，同樣也視為明代的史料。本文的論旨，端在闡析明代的歷史文化，經由毛澤東創造性的轉化之後，已變為毛打天下、治天下或亂天下的重要思想資源。毛的不少方針政策，有些直接緣自毛閱讀與明代相關典籍的心得，有些則經過與毛的閱讀心得互相對照、互相發明或互相批判，從而得到更新、修正或強化。並且，毛對明代小說、戲曲的熟習和靈活應用，使他能如魚得水般自由出入於大眾文化和菁英文化、大傳統和小傳統之間，而他在這兩種文化和兩個傳統之間左右逢源的能耐，又使他成為操弄群眾感情的心理工程大師。他在閱讀《三國演義》和《水滸傳》所領悟出的戰略和戰術，更幫助他在戰場上擊敗了國民黨，贏得了整個中國大陸。
Mao Zedong's use of Chinese history and culture was obviously not confined to the Ming Dynasty. For example, The Story of the Stone by Cao Xuqin and Statecraft by Zeng Guofan of the Qing Dynasty had profound influence on Mao's thinking. To fully analyze Mao's use of the entire extent of Chinese history and culture would require volumes, but this article can focus on Mao's use of the Ming Dynasty. Inspired by Zhang Xuecheng's concept that ”the Six Classics are all history,” this article not only considers materials written and edited during the Ming Dynasty, it also includes Qing and modern texts on the Ming Dynasty. This article aims to analyze how the history and culture of the Ming Dynasty, after being creatively transformed by Mao, were used as important sources of Mao's thinking. Many of Mao's policies were influenced by his readings of Ming Dynasty works. In addition, Mao's familiarity with drama and fiction of the Ming Dynasty enabled him to move freely between popular culture and elite culture. This contributed to his mastery of psychological engineering and mass mobilization. Furthermore, Mao's reading of The Water Margin and The Romance of the Three Kingdoms allowed him to devise tactics to defeat the Nationalist Party in 1949.
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