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Title: Satellite-based estimates of long-term exposure to fine particles and association with mortality in elderly Hong Kong residents
Authors: Wong, CM
Lai, HK
Tsang, H
Thach, TQ
Thomas, GN
Lam, KBH
Chan, KP
Yang, L 
Lau, AKH
Ayres, JG
Lee, SY
Chan, WM
Hedley, AJ
Lam, TH
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services & National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
Source: Environmental health perspectives, 2015, v. 123, no. 11, p. 1167-1172 How to cite?
Journal: Environmental health perspectives 
Abstract: Background: A limited number of studies on long-term effects of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) on health suggest it can be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. In Asia where air quality is poor and deteriorating, local data on long-term effects of PM2.5 to support policy on air quality management are scarce.
Objectives: We assessed long-term effects of PM2.5 on the mortality in a single Asian city.
Methods: For 10-13 years, we followed up a cohort of 66,820 participants >= 65 years of age who were enrolled and interviewed in all 18 Elderly Health Centres of the Department of Health, Hong Kong, in 1998-2001. Their residential addresses were geocoded into x and y-coordinates, and their proxy exposures to PM2.5 at their addresses in 1 X 1 km grids were estimated from the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) satellite data. We used Cox regression models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality associated with PM2.5.
Results: Mortality HRs per 10-mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.07, 1.22) for all natural causes, 1.22 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.39) for cardiovascular causes, 1.42 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.73) for ischemic heart disease, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.53) for cerebrovascular disease, and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.22) for respiratory causes.
Conclusions: Our methods in using NASA satellite data provide a readily accessible and affordable approach to estimation of a sufficient range of individual PM2.5 exposures in a single city. This approach can expand the capacity to conduct environmental accountability studies in areas with few measurements of fine particles.
ISSN: 0091-6765 (print)
1552-9924 (online)
DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1408264
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