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Title: Using an integer least squares estimator to connect isolated InSAR fringes in earthquake slip inversion
Authors: Wang, C
Ding, XL 
Li, Q
Shan, X
Liu, P
Keywords: Integer least squares
Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR)
Isolated fringes
Slip distribution inversion
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
Source: IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing, 2016, v. 54, no. 5, p. 2899-2910 How to cite?
Journal: IEEE transactions on geoscience and remote sensing 
Abstract: Coherence loss is a critical issue in interferometric synthetic aperture radar geodesy, particularly when short-wavelength radar images are used to monitor earthquake deformation, and it may result in isolated fringes in an interferogram. The conventional unwrapping algorithms may incompletely unwrap or wrongly estimate the integer jumps between isolated fringes. In this paper, we propose a novel method to connect the isolated fringes in earthquake slip inversion. We usemultiple starting points to unwrap the interferogram and then solve the integer ambiguities among the starting points by a dislocation-model-based integer least squares estimator. This estimator allows us to provide a quantitative evaluation of the reliability of the integer solutions in terms of two indicators (the success rate and residual ratio). The algorithm is robust to a certain degree of data noise and fault geometry error, as tested. Simulated experiments and case studies demonstrate that the proposed method can give better unwrapping results than the conventional approaches such as the minimum-cost flow (MCF), statistical-cost network-flow algorithm for phase unwrapping (SNAPHU), and iterative forms of MCF and SNAPHU with the assistance of a slip model. The earthquake slip inversion therefore benefits from the more accurate unwrapping results.
ISSN: 0196-2892
EISSN: 1558-0644
DOI: 10.1109/TGRS.2015.2507601
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