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Title: Time dependent infrared thermographic evaluation of facemasks
Authors: Luximon, Y 
Sheen, KA
Luximon, A 
Keywords: Subjective perceptions
Temperature distribution
Thermal comfort
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: IOS Press
Source: Work, 2016, v. 54, no. 4, p. 825-835 How to cite?
Journal: Work 
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated silent versus speaking situations while wearing various types of facemasks over a period of time.
OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is the evaluation of temperature changes with time and the thermal comfort of facemasks under different verbal output conditions.
METHODS: A two-way within-subject experiment was conducted to find the effects of facemask types and verbal output conditions. The infrared thermographic technology was used to record the video during the experiment. A subjective questionnaire was applied to measure the perception ratings of thermal discomfort.
RESULTS: Wearing a facemask could result in a higher face temperature compared to the condition in which a facemask was not worn. The N95 mask created the highest temperature value in the cheeks and nose/mouth regions. The speaking condition did not present significant difference on face temperature compared to the silent condition. Participants tended to provide higher subjective ratings of perceived humidity, heat, breathing difficulty and overall discomfort while wearing facemasks, especially while wearing the N95 mask and during the speaking conditions.
CONCLUSIONS: Facial temperature distribution demonstrated various trends with time under different conditions. Facemask types had significant effects on facial temperature and perceived thermal comfort.
ISSN: 1051-9815
EISSN: 1875-9270
DOI: 10.3233/WOR-162353
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