Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/62076
Title: Valorization of food waste into hydroxymethylfurfural : dual role of metal ions in successive conversion steps
Authors: Yu, IKM
Tsang, DCW 
Yip, ACK
Chen, SS
Ok, YS
Poon, CS 
Keywords: Biomass conversion
Bread/rice
Homogeneous catalysis
Lewis acid
Metal chloride
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Bioresource technology, 2016, v. 219, p. 338-347 How to cite?
Journal: Bioresource technology 
Abstract: This study aimed to transform food waste into a value-added chemical, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and unravel the tangled effects induced by the metal catalysts on each single step of the successive conversion pathway. The results showed that using cooked rice and bread crust as surrogates of starch-rich food waste, yields of 8.1–9.5% HMF and 44.2–64.8% glucose were achieved over SnCl4 catalyst. Protons released from metal hydrolysis and acidic by-products rendered Brønsted acidity to catalyze fructose dehydration and hydrolysis of glycosidic bond. Lewis acid site of metals could facilitate both fructose dehydration and glucose isomerization via promoting the rate-limiting internal hydride shift, with the catalytic activity determined by its electronegativity, electron configuration, and charge density. Lewis acid site of a higher valence also enhanced hydrolysis of polysaccharide. However, the metals also catalyzed undesirable polymerization possibly by polarizing the carbonyl groups of sugars and derivatives, which should be minimized by process optimization.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/62076
ISSN: 0960-8524
EISSN: 1873-2976
DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2016.08.002
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