Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/61211
Title: The impact of genes, geography, and educational opportunities on national cognitive achievement
Authors: Minkov, M
Welzel, C
Bond, MH 
Keywords: Cognitive achievement
Cool water theory
Genes
Life history strategy
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Learning and individual differences, 2016, v. 47, p. 236-243 How to cite?
Journal: Learning and individual differences 
Abstract: A debate between Stankov and Lynn has focused on whether national differences in cognitive achievement are primarily a matter of culturally-driven motivation or genetically determined mental ability, measured in terms of IQ. We present evidence showing that a third position is more conclusive: while genetic differences are a driving force behind differences in academic achievement between nations, these genetic differences operate on motivation rather than ability. Indeed, across 53 countries from all continents, 90% of the variance in national cognitive achievement can be explained by: (1) a recently reported national genetic index related to life history strategy; (2) educational opportunities as measured by the education index of the United Nations Development Program, and (3) a geographic variable: Welzel's index for cool water condition. In contrast, neither national wealth (gross domestic product per person), nor socioeconomic inequality (Gini index), nor pathogen prevalence show a significant effect. We explain these findings by combining theoretical propositions about academic achievement from two complementary approaches: life history strategy and the cool water condition.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/61211
ISSN: 1041-6080 (print)
1873-3425 (online)
DOI: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.03.004
Appears in Collections:Journal/Magazine Article

Access
View full-text via PolyU eLinks SFX Query
Show full item record

SCOPUSTM   
Citations

1
Last Week
0
Last month
Citations as of Aug 17, 2017

WEB OF SCIENCETM
Citations

1
Last Week
0
Last month
Citations as of Aug 4, 2017

Page view(s)

22
Last Week
1
Last month
Checked on Aug 13, 2017

Google ScholarTM

Check

Altmetric



Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.