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Title: A study on tilted tunnel fire under natural ventilation
Authors: Chow, WK 
Gao, Y
Zhao, JH
Dang, JF
Chow, NCL
Keywords: Numerical simulation
Smoke movement
Tilted tunnel
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Fire safety journal, 2016, v. 81, p. 44-57 How to cite?
Journal: Fire safety journal 
Abstract: Tilted tunnel fire under natural ventilation has been discussed. Smoke movement in a scale tunnel model of length 8 m, width 1.5 m and height 1 m was studied. Air temperature distribution and velocity components along the longitudinal axis at the tunnel opening were measured. Simulations using Computational Fluid Dynamics on smoke movement in the tilted tunnel fire were then carried out. Buoyancy of smoke layer in the tilted tunnel model was deduced by integrating experimental data with simulations results. Smoke velocity distributions in different tilted tunnels were studied numerically. For a horizontal tunnel, the smoke temperature decay rate along the longitudinal direction can be described by an exponential function. For tunnels tilted from 3° to 9°, smoke temperature decayed with different exponential functions on the two sides of the fire. The smoke velocity along the longitudinal axis was not symmetric about the fire source, but with a maximum value located on the leeward side in tunnels tilted at 3-9°. The neutral plane of flow disappeared at the lower opening of the tunnel when the angle was above 9°. Empirical expressions of smoke temperature and velocity decays along the longitudinal axis for a tilted tunnel were also derived.
ISSN: 0379-7112
DOI: 10.1016/j.firesaf.2016.01.014
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