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Title: Anticipatory nausea, risk factors, and its impact on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting : results from the pan European Emesis registry study
Authors: Molasiotis, A 
Lee, PH 
Burke, TA
Dicato, M
Gascon, P
Roila, F
Aapro, M
Keywords: Anticipatory nausea
Chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting
Prechemotherapy nausea
Issue Date: 2016
Publisher: Elsevier
Source: Journal of pain and symptom management, 2016, v. 51, no. 6, p. 987-993 How to cite?
Journal: Journal of pain and symptom management 
Abstract: Context Anticipatory (prechemotherapy) nausea (AN) is a classic conditioned symptom not responding well to current antiemetics. Minimal work has been done to assess its risk factors and impact on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). Objectives To evaluate risk factors for AN and assess its impact on CINV development. Methods We analyzed data (n = 991) from a prospective observational multisite study in eight European countries over three cycles of chemotherapy. Patient/treatment characteristics were collected before chemotherapy. History of nausea/vomiting (yes/no), patient expectation of CINV (0-100 mm visual analog scale, [VAS]), and prechemotherapy anxiety (0-100 mm VAS) also were collected before chemotherapy. A patient-completed diary during each chemotherapy cycle obtained information on AN in the 24 hours before chemotherapy administration and nausea and vomiting (episodes of vomiting and severity of nausea) daily for five days after administration of chemotherapy (0-100 mm VAS). Results AN was reported by 8.3%-13.8% of patients, increasing in frequency and intensity over each cycle. Every 1 mm increase in AN on the VAS was significantly associated with 2%-13% of increase in the likelihood of CINV (all P-values <0.05). Key predictors of AN in Cycle 1 included metastatic disease and prechemotherapy anxiety. However, predictors of AN in subsequent cycles included prechemotherapy anxiety and AN and CINV experience in the previous cycle, the latter being the strongest predictor (odds ratio = 3.30-4.09 for CINV outcomes over the cycles). Conclusion AN is a challenging symptom, and its prevention needs to consider better CINV prevention in the previous cycles as well as managing prechemotherapy anxiety.
ISSN: 0885-3924
EISSN: 1873-6513
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2015.12.317
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