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|Title:||A path to civil administration : the appointment of the“peichen ”and its political significance in the early northern Song era||Other Titles:||締造文治之局──論北宋初年任用諸國陪臣及其政治意義||Authors:||Ng, PS||Keywords:||Northern Song
Civil service examinations
|Issue Date:||2009||Publisher:||東吳大學||Source:||東吳歷史學報 (Soochow journal of history), 2009, v. 22, p. 225-359 How to cite?||Journal:||東吳歷史學報 (Soochow journal of history)||Abstract:||本文的寫作要旨，在於透過列國陪臣入宋後的仕宦經歷，闡述北宋政權在締造文治局面時所作出的努力和方針。由於北宋強化科舉考試制度的角色和作用，遂能吸納大批知識份子擔任政府職任，打破自唐末五代以來軍人壟斷政權的局面。然而，北宋執行上述政策的過程中，遇上了因領土快速擴張而造成地方管治架構闕員的困難。北宋乃調整防制列國陪臣的策略，起用他們入職政府。不過，北宋政府選任陪臣時，刻意加入自己所建構的元素，以達到防範反側和提倡忠君觀念的效果：避免陪臣在故國地域領圍任職；永不任用嘗對故主不忠的陪臣；運用待遇差異措施手段，鼓勵陪臣參與北宋舉辦的科舉考試，取得入職資格，以示與故國割斷任何形式的連繫，一心效忠新主。但在邊徼形勝之地、民族成份複雜之區，以及瘴氣疫病流行之域，北宋政府鑒於形勢需要，每多作彈性處理，委任當地原來的官僚將領留任。這個現象，充份體現北宋選任陪臣因地制宜的優點。
Based on the careers of the 'peichen' in the early Northern Song, this paper attempts to describe the efforts made by this new dynasty in establishing its civil administration. By strengthening the functions of the civil service examinations, the Northern Song tried to recruit a substantial number of literati to take posts in the bureaucracy thus putting an end to military domination since the period of the late Tang and the Five Dynasties. However the policy of having the bureaucracy literatized was to meet a setback caused by an insufficient supply of officials. Rapid territorial expansion had necessitated that the bureaucracy recruit a large number of officials, but the quantity needed was simply beyond the recruitment capacity with which the civil service examinations could provide. To fix the problem, the Northern Song had to put aside its discriminatory and preventive measures against the 'peichen' and appoint them to be officials. In the process of appointing the 'peichen', the Northern Song managed to achieve the effects of preventing revolts and promoting a sense of loyalty. First, the 'peichen' would not be assigned to assume duties in the areas of their home countries. Second, the 'peichen' who were disloyal to their former master would not be appointed. Third, a differentiation policy in terms of treatments and promotions was adopted to encourage the 'peichen' to take the civil service examinations held by the Northern Song; this policy was considered a way to cut off all kinds of affinity shown by the 'peichen' to their home countries. In the regions which were characterized by strategic importance, ethnic complexity, geographical remoteness and the prevalence of epidemics, the Northern Song showed its flexibility in maintaining the pre-existing administrative mechanism of the subjugated regimes.
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