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|Title:||The criteria for Chinese dialect classification and the problem of the position of the "Hakka dialect" in Chinese dialect grouping||Other Titles:||漢語方言的分類標準與'客家話'在漢語方言分類上的問題||Authors:||Lau, CF||Keywords:||Design thinking
|Issue Date:||2002||Publisher:||Project on Linguistic Analysis||Source:||Journal of Chinese linguistics, 2002, v. 30, no. 1, p. 82-96 How to cite?||Journal:||Journal of Chinese linguistics||Abstract:||This article deals with two questions: (I ) The criteria for Chinese dialects classification and (2) The rationale for the Hakka Dialects or even the Hakka, Yue and Gan dialects as independent dialect groups.
In the eyes of Chinese dialectologists, the vast numbers of Chinese dialects in China, which are mutually unintelligible among themselves but having regular phonetic correspondence, are "Chinese dialects". But what are the relationships among them? Borrowing the concept of biological classification, dialectologists tried to classify them, but they lacked consistency. For a long period in the past, we were misled by superficial humanistic phenomena and used artificial boundaries (like provincial or prefecture boundaries) plus the feeling of the speakers to separate dialects into groups. In the Southern provinces like Yue, Xiang, Gan, Min every province were assigned a provincial dialect plus a "HakIca dialect group" as a result of Hakka identity. After fixing the number of "dialect groups", they used the authoritative dialect of the group to represent the group, without considering the historical linkages between the dialects and the migration history of the speakers. During classification, they mixed up the early and late historical events and seemed to have no strict scientific principles. Apart from Min and Wu, every dialect group consists of dialects that are put together regionally rather than historically. In this article, apart from a preliminary definition for "early" and "late" events, I also supplemented a principle of Zhuo-Shang/Zhuo Qu sound change pattern to distinguish dialect groups. In this way, Chinese dialects can be classified into Northern, Wu, Min and Gan-Yue dialect groups, so that the present irrationally separated three groups of dialects — Hakica, Yue and Gan — are included in the last group. In the past centuries, because of the conflicts between the Jiaying- and Cantonese-speaking speakers, both groups built up hatred and discrimination against each other. The flaying dialect speakers were under pressure and invented the label "Hakka Identity" for self-esteem. Unfortunately, their story was accepted by dialectologists at once as a criterion for dialect classification. Therefore, this article also studies the relationship between "Hakka Identity" and the "Hakka Dialects", so as to point out how nonsense it was to use non-linguistic factors for the definition of dialects. Finally, I also discuss the definition, limit and the position of the "Hakka dialects" in the field of Chinese dialectology.
在汉语语言学家的眼中，中国大地上现存无类互不能通，但互相之间有严密语音对应规律的方音，都是”汉语方言”。但是，汉语方音之间的关系是怎様的呢？方言学家便借用了 生物学的概念，将方言分类。可是分类的方法和标准没有一定的规则。在过去的一段时间里，我们都被一些表面的人文现象误导，将人为的界限（例如省、州界）甚至说话人本人 的认同或感情取向，用来作为方言界限。南方各省首先产生了”一省一语”的粤、湘、赣、闽等方言，以及基于”客家认同”的客家方言。订立了”方言”的数量之后，更采取权 威方音作方言的代表，作为该方言的特征，没有考虑方音间的历史联系，和方言人口历史的来龙去脉。分类的时候，将早期和晚期历史条件混合使用，显得没有严谨的科学原则。 除了闽语、吴语之外，每个方言区包括的方音，主要都地域关系而不是历史关系。 我在这篇文章中，除了对”早期”和”晚期”的条件初步做出定义外，还补充了一条浊上／浊去演变类型的原则。这様，汉语方言可以主要分为北方话区、吴语区、闽语区和赣粤 语区。而目前不合理地分为客、粤、赣的三种方言，大部份也涵盖在赣粤语区内。 在过去的数百年间，由于嘉应话和粤语羣体间的矛盾，造成两个羣体间的憎恨，仇视和敌对。操嘉应话者因为受到排挤、压迫，编造了一个抬高自己身份认同的标签－－”客家” ，结果也被方言学家不假思索地，顺手捡来作为方言分类的理据。因此，本文也探讨了”客家认同”和”客家话”的关系，指乢利用非语言学因素来介定方言的错谬。同时，也顺 带说明了”客家话”的定义、范围和其在汉语方言分类上应有的位置。
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