Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/60494
Title: Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong
Authors: Chan, LY
Liu, YM
Keywords: Public transportation
Microenvironment
Carbon monoxide
Human exposure
Issue Date: 2001
Publisher: Pergamon Press
Source: Atmospheric environment, 2001, v. 35, no. 15, p. 2637-2646 How to cite?
Journal: Atmospheric environment 
Abstract: Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban–urban, urban–suburban and urban–rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3 ppm, respectively. The average concentration level difference between air-conditioned buses (1.8 ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9 ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban–suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban–urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban–rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel. The average CO exposure of a commuter in tunnel can be 2–3 times higher than that at the other roads. The CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Hong Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10397/60494
ISSN: 1352-2310
EISSN: 1873-2844
DOI: 10.1016/S1352-2310(00)00450-7
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